2MAIN AREAS WHERE WWII WAS FOUGHT. IT WAS FOUGHT ALL OVER THE PLANET.
3World War II Up to and including 1939 Treaty of VersaillesPunishes Germany with reparations, extreme poverty causes resentment to Great Britain and France. Opens the door for a radical leader. Hitler = totalitarian.Uses Jews as scapegoat for all of Germany’s woes. Social Democrats in power prior to Hitler composed of many Jews, and blamed for Germany’s conditions.
4Aggression: Mussolini and Hitler Italy-expands into Albania and Ethiopia, already possesses Libya, Eritrea, and Somaliland, Sardinia, SicilyGermany- Saar (1935)Rhineland(1936) Sudetenland(1938), Austria(1938), Czechoslovakia(1939) and Poland(1939)
5Japanese Aggression: Hirohito In September of 1931, Japan invades and takes over Manchuria, in northern China.The move was a violation of the Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928 (signed by Japan)Despite cries of protest from China, the League of Nations accepted Japan’s reasoning of self-defense for the aggression.US reaction- ends arms agreementJapanese look at end of pact as threat to national security….OIL involved.
7THE ALLIED POWERS India Brazil These are the nations that had a substantial number of soldiers involved in the fighting.THE ALLIED POWERS
8MAP OF EUROPE AFTER WORLD WAR I MAP OF EUROPE AFTER WORLD WAR I. (SOURCE:WEST POINT ATLAS OF US MILITARY HISTORY) ASK STUDENTS WHAT HAS HAPPENED TO GERMAN TERRITORY AS A RESULT OF WW I?
9We are not looking to fight! US and IsolationismWe are not looking to fight!Isolationism-remaining out of foreign affairs.Patch up relations with Latin AmericaTydings-McDuffie Act gives independence to Phillipines (to not upset JP)Neutrality Act of stops sending arms to nations at warUS refuses to join the World Court in the League of NationsNeutrality Act of changes arms sales to “cash and carry”
10When cautioned not to anger European powers, Hitler responded: Sadly, Hitler was right. Not only Europe, but the world responded much to late to the aggression and violence of Hitler. The “isolationist” and “neutral” attitude of the world led to the deaths of millions and a full scale world war that may have been prevented.“They’ll never act. They’ll just protest. And they will always be too late.”
11The Painful LessonGreat Britain, France, Italy, and Germany meet in Munich on September 28, 1938.Hitler has been aggressive in taking land west of GermanyGB and FR try to appease Hitler by agreeing to the dismembering of democratic Czechoslovakia, in hopes that Hitler would cease.“agreement” is a failure.Hitler invades the “demilitarized” Czechoslovakia and promptly breaks Munich PactBy the end of 1939 both Hitler and Mussolini had conquered more territory in Europe and made plans for further wars.Becomes famous as the “Lesson of Munich”
12Why does Russia sign this non-aggressive pact with Germany? Troubling AgreementsIn order to continue on his quest to dominate Europe, Hitler knew he must avoid war with the Soviet Union.Hitler and Stalin (Soviet Union) sign Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact in 1939GE gets western Poland (prevents 2-sided war)SU gets eastern Poland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Bessarabia (creates buffer against GE invasion)What is the overwhelming consequence of European appeasement to both Hitler and Mussolini?Why does Russia sign this non-aggressive pact with Germany?
13September 1st, 1939 Germany invades Poland officially beginning World War II On September 1, 1939 Hitler launched a full-scale invasion of Poland.Britain and France declared war on Germany and WWII had begun.Germany and the Soviet Union divided Poland into two zones.One month later Germany invaded France
14HITLER INVADES POLAND:SEPTEMBER 1, 1939 SEPTEMBER 1, 1939: HITLER INVADES POLAND.
15ON SEPTEMBER 17 THE USSR, IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE NONAGGRESSION PACT, INVADED POLAND FROM THE EAST.
16MILITARY STRENGTH COMPARSION BETWEEN GERMANY AND POLAND IN 1939 MILITARY UNITGERMANYPOLANDINFANTRYDIVISIONS4638MOTORIZED4 ¾11 CALVALRYBRIGADES(HORSES)TANK DIVISIONS7NONETANKS3200600BOMBERS1176146FIGHTERS771315OTHER PLANES1337381SEPTEMBER 1, 1939: HITLER INVADES POLAND:ON CHART: INFANTRY ARE DIVISIONS MOVE PREDOMINATELY ON FOOT. THEY HAVE FROM 8 TO 16,000 SOLDIERS.MOTORIZED DIVISIONS MOVE USING TRUCKS AND HALF TRACKED VEHICLES, THEY ARE MUCH MOE EXPENSIVE THAN INFANTRY DIVISIONS.TANK DIVISIONS ARE MADE UP OF TANKS AND MOTORIZED DIVISIONS. THEY ARE THE MOST POWERFUL UNITS IN ANY ARMY.ASK THE STUDENTS, BASED ON THE CHART, WHO WILL WIN THE WAR BETWEEN GERMANY AND POLAND
17US reaction to EuropeFDR passes Neutrality Act of repealing arms embargo.Neutrality becomes heavily debated in the United States.
18World War II 1940 German Victories April 9, Germans ended their lull in fighting by taking over all of Denmark in a matter of HOURS!May-June, Germany invaded and captured Belgium, the Netherlands and France. Although there was some resistance from British and French forces, they were no match for the Nazi army.
19BritainWho’s Next?ASK STUDENTS TO ANALYZE THE MAP. WHAT COUNTRY WILL BE HITLER’S NEXT TARGET?
20Changing of the GuardBritain now stood alone. Chamberlain resigned and Winston Churchill became prime minister. Churchill would have nothing to do with appeasement. He promised to stand up to German and Italian aggression no matter what the cost!With a new prime minister acting in Britain, public opinion began to shift in the United States. The Congress allocated over $17 billion to Great Britain and made a deal with Britain to provide them with destroyers.What made Churchill different from other leaders around the world at this time?
21A Third Term for Roosevelt Americans were surprised that Roosevelt decided to run for a third term and break the tradition begun by George Washington. He gave two reasons for running again: experienced leadership and knowledge of European leaders. Although he faced opposition early on, he won the Democratic nomination and won the election with 54% of the popular vote.What are the possible negative outcomes of breaking such a long tradition? Do you think FDR should have run for a third term? Why or Why not?
22World War II 1941 Speaking to the World January 6, 1941-Four Freedoms SpeechFDR’s Four Freedoms to be guaranteed to the entire world.1.Speech2.Religion3.Want4.Fear
23“…Since the beginning of our American history, we have been engaged in change -- in a perpetual peaceful revolution -- a revolution which goes on steadily, quietly adjusting itself to changing conditions -- without the concentration camp or the quick-lime in the ditch. The world order which we seek is the cooperation of free countries, working together in a friendly, civilized society…”-FDR
24End To IsolationismLend-Lease Act (1941)- This act allowed Roosevelt to desert “neutrality” to provide war materials to any country whose security he deemed vital to the defense of the US.Roosevelt acted immediately to provide materials to Britain and Russia (Germany had attacked Russia by surprise in June 1941, breaking their non-aggression pact)
25Supplies across the Atlantic Getting Lend-Lease materials across the Atlantic proved to be a difficult task. German submarines or U-Boats sank many supply ships.By July 1941, Roosevelt announced that US and British warships would accompany freight ships to help materials cross the ocean. At first Germany did not respond, but by October 1941 they had attacked two American destroyers.
27U BOATS; GERMAN WORD FOR SUBMARINE U BOATS; GERMAN WORD FOR SUBMARINE. THE GERMANS WERE USING THEIR SUBS TO SINK BRITISH SHIPPING AND STARVE THE UK INTO SURRENDERING. THEY WERE SINKING HUNDREDS OF SHIPS AND THE BRITISH NAVY COULD NOT STOP THEMNEUTRALITY PATROLS: FDR BEGAN HELPING BRITAIN FIGHT OFF THE U-BOAT THREAT. US WARSHIPS BEGAN CONVOYING SHIPS TO PROTECT THEM FROM U-BOATS
28THE ROBIN MOOR WAS CLEARLY MARKED AS A MERCHANT VESSEL FROM THE USA ROBIN MOOR: UNARMED US MERCHANT SHIP THAT WAS SUNK BY GERMAN U-BOATS IN MAY OF HITLER CONSIDERED THE LEND LEASE ACT AS A DECLARATION THAT THE US WAS SIDING WITH THE UK IN THE WAR.THE ROBIN MOOR WAS CLEARLY MARKED AS A MERCHANT VESSEL FROM THE USA
29Alliance with BritainAlthough the US had not declared war on any nation, it moved steadily closer to siding with Britain.Churchill and Roosevelt met in August 1941 and made a joint statement known as the Atlantic Charter. In this statement they agreed that neither nation would seek territorial gains and proposed that all aggressing dictators be disarmed. This dramatically changed a long lasting US foreign policy.
30Convoys increased the merchant ships chances of surviving the ocean voyage JULY 1941: FDR MADE THE DECISION FOR US WAR SHIPS TO CONVOY MERCHANT SHIPS TO ICELAND. MEANT RISK OF WAR WITH GERMANYCONVOY: SENDING WARSHIPS TO GUARD MERCHANT SHIPS PROTECTING THEM FROM BEING SUNK BY ENEMY SUBMARINES.
31AREA OF GREATEST DANGER FOR ALLIED MERCHANT SHIPS AREA OF THE GREATEST DANGER FOR ALLIED MERCHANT SHIPS. NOTE LOCATION OF EVENTS
32Japan joined Germany and Italy in an anti-Soviet treaty. Embargo Against JapanJapan continued its aggression against China causing relations to erode with the USJapan joined Germany and Italy in an anti-Soviet treaty.Despite US warnings to stay out of Indochina (Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia) Japan took control of the Asian territory.Japan wanted the US to stop sending aid to China, and restore trade with Japan. Diplomatic talks in November 1941 failed, and during the meetings, Japan planned an attack on the United States.
33Pearl Harbor at a Glance The surprise attack destroyed 18 warships, 188 aircraft and killed 2,403 servicemenPearl Harbor at a GlanceOn December 7, 1941 at 7:55 AM, Japanese bombers attacked the US fleet at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.
37World War II 1942DECEMBER 8TH 1941: THE US DECLARED WAR ON JAPAN. SLIDE AND SOUND…FDR DECLARING WAR ON JAPAN.
38BATTLE OF THE CORAL SEA MAY 7-8, 1942 Pacific DominanceThe Japanese, after Pearl Harbor, showed naval superiority by crushing enemy fleets and dominating islands of the South Pacific. The Battle of the Coral Sea positioned enemies out of sight from one another, the first battle of its kind in history. The island of Midway was crucial in the strategy of Japan providing a point from which to bomb Pearl Harbor, making the US base useless.Because of advantageous decoding by the US, Japan suffered severe damage in the Battle of Midway. The United States navy finally turned the tide in the naval struggle in the war by sinking four of Japan’s best carriers and downing many aircraft. The US victory saved Midway, Samoa, and Fiji from Japanese control.
41US CARRIER DIVE BOMBERS PREPARE TO STRIKE JAPANESE CARRIERS AT MIDWAY
42JAPANESE SHIPS SINKING AFTER ATTACKS BY US DIVE BOMBERS
43USS Enterprise Aircraft carrier AIRCRAFT CARRIERS: THE MOST IMPORTANT WARSHIPS IN THE PACIFIC. LUCKILY THE CARRIERS WERE NOT AT PEARL HARBOR WHEN THE JAPANESE ATTACKED.USS Enterprise Aircraft carrier(not at Pearl Harbor during the attack)
44(US, BRITAIN, NETHERLANDS) MILITARY STRENGTH AT THE START OF THE WAR IN THE PACIFIC Numbers do not include Allied military forces elsewhere in the worldMILITARYJAPANALLIED(US, BRITAIN, NETHERLANDS)BATTLESHIPS10CARRIERS113CRUISERS4137DESTROYERS12993SUBMARINES6770ARMY DIVISIONS5114AIRPLANES43001000WHAT WOULD BE THE MOST IMPORTANT MILITARY UNITS IN THE UPCOMING BATTLES? WHY? (NOTE: THESE NUMBERS ARE ESTIMATES ONLY). AIRCRAFT CARRIERS WERE THE MOST IMPORTANT MILITARY UNIT IN THE PACIFIC WAR BECAUSE THEY WERE FLOATING AIRFIELDS CAPABLE OF ATTACKING ENEMY BASES AND SHIPS ANYWHERE.
45Stepping stone to the Philippines Guadalcanal, one of the Solomon islands, was crucial in allowing Allies access to the Philippines and eventually a Japanese invasion.Hand to hand, jungle combat was a true test for US Marines who had lost the support of supply ships.The 20,000 Marines finally defeated the Japanese in a hard fought battle in February 1943, and effectively halted the Japanese island advancements.
46North AfricaNovember 8th- Operation Torch was the name given to a large allied operation landing in North Africa to follow up the British hold on Axis troops in Egypt.General Patton led the allies across the northern coast of Africa to support the fight against the fierce General Erwin Rommel, the “desert fox.”The eventual dismantling of Rommel’s Afrika Corps led the Vichy French to side with the Allies and sent a strong message to Hitler.
47GERMAN GENERAL ROMMEL KNOWN AS THE “DESERT FOX” FOR HIS BRILLIANT GENERALSHIP IN NORTH AFRICA
48What is the importance of halting Rommel in North Africa? What were the Japanese trying to accomplish by establishing Pacific dominance?What is the importance of halting Rommel in North Africa?
49World War II 1943"The defenders of the city used to say that the streets, avenues and parks near the Volga became slippery from blood, and that the Germans slipped down to their doom."General Chuikov
50Hitler’s Eastern Front Though the early stages of World War II focused on Western Europe, Hitler had diverted his attention to Russia by 1941. The battle of Stalingrad was fought from August1942 to February of 1943. Against the advice of his generals, Hitler attacked the Russian city. German armies surrounded the city and so the Russians were trapped and would remain so for several months. When reinforcements arrived for the Soviets, they surrounded the Germans and forced them to surrender. The battle of Stalingrad not only destroyed much of the German army, but also ended their offensive in Russia and ultimately resulted in Germany’s defeat.
51OPERATION BARBAROSSAOperation Barbarossa was a three pronged invasion of the Soviet Union. The goal was to seize all of the USSR up to the Ural Mountains including the major cities of Odessa, Kiev, Moscow, Leningrad and Stalingrad.
52Stalingrad Stalingrad The battle of Stalingrad was arguably the largest single battle in human history. It raged for 199 days. Numbers of casualties are difficult to compile owing to the vast scope of the battle and the fact the Soviet government didn't allow estimates to be run for fear the cost would have proven too high.In all, a total of anywhere from 1.7 million to 2 million Axis and Soviet casualties resulted from the battle, making it by far the largest in human history.
53MILLIONS OF RUSSIAN SOLDIERS WERE KILLED OR CAPTURED IN THE FIRST FEW MONTHS OF THE GERMAN ATTACK.
56Afrika LostAllied troops caught up to Axis forces in Tunisia (North Africa) and forced German General von Arnin to surrender.In securing North Africa, the Mediterranean would be open for British/ Allied supplies.An allied plan to invade Italy was unfolding, meanwhile, within Italy, Mussolini was replaced by a new government despite reinforced Nazi contol.THE WAR IN NORTH AFRICA BEGAN WHEN ITALIAN TROOPS ATTACKED BRITISH TROOPS IN EGYPT IN SEPTEMBER THE BRITISH COUNTER ATTACKED IN DECEMBER AND EASILY DEFEATED THE ITALIANS.
57THE END IN NORTH AFRICA: GERMAN TROOPS SURRENDERING TO ALLIED FORCES ROMMEL AND HIS AFRIKA CORPS WAS TRAPPED BETWEEN THE BRITISH AND AMERICAN FORCES AND AFTER HEAVY FIGHTING DESTROYED IN MAY OF 1943.THE END IN NORTH AFRICA: GERMAN TROOPS SURRENDERING TO ALLIED FORCES
59Crossing the English Channel As an invasion of southern Italy pushed back Axis forces, a large Allied attack was planned to hit Nazi-controlled France by crossing the English Channel.
60Expecting a large attack at Calais, the narrowest crossing, Hitler held off his many armored divisions from a counter attack around the beaches of Normandy.“D-Day” the name given to the exact day of any military movement, was the largest single attack plan in history.
61SUPREME ALLIED COMMANDER GENERAL EISENHOWER SPEAKS WITH PARATROOPERS JUST BEFORE THEY EMBARK TO JUMP INTO NAZI OCCUPIED FRANCE
62THOUSANDS OF ALLIED SOLDIERS ENTERED BATTLE FROM THE AIR
63THOUSANDS OF TROOPS ARRIVED IN FRANCE ON TOWED GLIDERS THOUSANDS OF TROOPS ARRIVED IN FRANCE ON TOWED GLIDERS. MANY CRASHED, KILLING THEIR PILOTS AND PASSENGERS.
64A total of 600 warships, 400 small crafts, 176,000 troops, and an air assault of 11,000 planes stormed the beaches of Normandy, France.CARGO SHIPS BEING UNLOADED ON THE INVASION BEACHES TO SUPPLY THE INVADING ARMIES
65Despite a treacherous initial landing, the Allies managed to land 326,000 men, 50,000 vehicles, and 100,000 tons of supplies in just one week.
66The invasion of Normandy lasted from June 6 to July 24, followed by a large attack by US General Patton, General A.M. Patch, and the French Forces of the Interior (FFI).Paris was liberated by August and by October, the Germans were out of France.
68Four Terms for FDRBased upon FDR’s experience and leadership, the nation gave the President a victory in seeking his fourth term for President in a decisive 432 to 99 electoral vote. Being that the tide was turning in the war, the economy was revitalized, and American prosperity seemed sure to return, FDR gained a secure victory.
69World War II 1945 Holding Bastogne In December of 1944, the Germans tried to break through the Allied defenses to invade France. The defense perimeter at the point of attack, near Bastogne was weak and poorly supported.Dense forests and bad weather gave the Nazis an advantage, and allowed their Panzer armor division to penetrate 60 miles into the Allied perimeter- causing a “bulge” in the line.After refusing to surrender while surrounded, the US troops of the 101st Airborne division held off the Germans until back-up arrived.The Germans were then pushed back to the original Siegfried line. The Battle of the Bulge was the largest ground battle of the war and took over 120,000 German lives.
70THE GERMANS LAUNCHED A SURPRISE ATTACK THROUGH THE ARDENNES FOREST THAT CAUGHT THE US ARMY UNPREPARED. THE FIGHTING LASTED FROM DECEMBER 16TH TO FEBRUARY 9TH 1945
71DEAD US SOLDIERS WHO WERE MURDERED BY GERMAN TROOPS AFTER SURRENDERING
73The Big ThreeIn February of 1945, the Great Britain’s Winston Churchill, Soviet Union’s Josef Stalin, and FDR met at Yalta to discuss the war and possible post-war measures.Stalin, claiming the largest casualties of the war were Soviet, cleverly requested the lion’s share. The Soviet leader demanded Poland, and half of all German reparations and promised to declare war on Japan, and join the newly formed United Nations.In return for these promises, Stalin would get some Japanese islands and the large area of Outer Mongolia. He vowed to allow the eastern European countries of Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria to elect their own governments.FDR and Churchill left the conference with a handful of promises and not much else.
74FDR HAS OFTEN BEEN ACCUSED OF SELLING OUT TO STALIN BUT BOTH FDR AND CHURCHILL KNEW WHILE THEY HAD 4 MILLION SOLDIERS STALIN HAD AN ARMY OF OVER 12 MILLION MEN.
75Battle for BerlinJoseph Stalin had effectively ordered his two leading generals - Zhukov and Konev - to race to the German capital.With such a huge advantage in manpower and equipment, getting to the actual capital was relatively easy in that the Germans were constantly retreating whereas the Russians had the advantage of forward momentum.
76US TROOPS ENTER GERMANY FROM THE WEST WHILE RUSSIAN SOLDIERS ATTACK FROM THE EAST.
77Battle for BerlinDespite the obvious hopelessness of the situation, Hitler still planned to direct the defense of the city himself putting his faith in the German 12th Army that had withdrawn from the western front. Casualty figures on both sides were high. The Russians lost 80,000 men killed and 275,000 wounded or missing in the lead up to the battle and in the battle itself. Two thousand Russian tanks were destroyed. 150,000 Germans were killed during the battle. The Russians simply destroyed a complete building if they had been fired on from somewhere within that building. However, the city could not last out for long and on May 2nd 1945, Berlin surrendered to the Russians and the war in Europe all but ended. Germany unconditionally surrendered on May 7th.
78Battle for BerlinOver two million artillery shells were fired into Berlin and the surrounding area in three weeks and 1 million Russian infantry troops took part in the assault on the city. Russia's vast tank superiority counted for little in the debris ridden streets of Berlin. The Germans who fought there were issued with portable anti-tank weaponry and could use hit-and-run tactics against Russian tanks. Areas had to be taken street by street and building by building.
79US AND SOVIET SOLDIERS GREET EACH OTHER AT TORGAU, GERMANY IN APRIL OF 1945.
80It was decided that the capture of Berlin would be given to the USSR armies. US troops would take no role in the massive final battle of the war.RUSSIAN ARMIES SURROUND BERLIN. THE BATTLE LASTED FROM APRIL 16TH TO MAY 2ND 1945.
81German SurrenderHitler decided to await the end in Berlin, where he could still manipulate what was left of the command apparatus. Most of his political and military associates chose to leave the capital for places in north and south Germany likely to be out of the Soviet reach.Hitler committed suicide in his Berlin bunker.As his last significant official act, he named Grand Admiral Karl Doenitz to succeed him as chief of state.Doenitz, who had been loyal to Hitler, had no course open to him other than surrender.
82Hitler commits suicide as the Russians approach his underground bunker in Berlin
83German SurrenderHis representative, General Alfred Jodl, signed an unconditional surrender of all German armed forces at Eisenhower's headquarters in Reims early on May 7, 1945.By then the German forces in Italy had already surrendered (on May 2), as had those in Holland, north Germany, and Denmark (May 4).The U.S. and British governments declared May 8 V-E (Victory in Europe) Day
84World War II 1945 The Fight for the Pacific Island A two-year fight for dominance in the Pacific ( ) proved costly for many American soldiers. Heavy losses mounted for American troops in their missions to fight the fierce Japanese for island control in the South Pacific. With eventual victories on Tarawa, Kwajalein, Saipan, Iwo Jima, and Okinawa, victory soon become attainable.The leap-frogging General MacArthur made his way toward the Philippines by way of Leyte Island. There on Leyte Island the Japanese made their last significant naval defense, and consequently lost their sea power in a stunning defeat.With the Japanese navy out of the war, the Americans charged into the Philippines to oust the remaining Japanese forces. After the Japanese surrender in Manila on March 9th, MacArthur declared the nation restored. s
85Death of FDRWith the war raging, FDR became run down in his fourth term. He traveled to his therapy center in Georgia to rest, and on April 12, 1945 a blood vessel burst in the president’s brain causing his death. America was devastated and mourned the lost of a true American President. Harry Truman would now face the crucial decisions of a wartime President.
86Atomic PowerSince 1942, the United States had been conducting experiments on splitting the atom, thus creating a new source of tremendous power. The so-called “Manhattan Project” under the supervision of scientist Enrico Fermi, had successfully created the capability of atomic weaponry, and on July 16, 1945 tested the weapon at Alamogordo, New Mexico. By the time the bomb was ready to use the Italians, and Germans surrendered, leaving the Japanese as the lone possible targets of atomic devastation. After a refusal to the warning of, “the alternative to surrender is prompt and utter destruction,” the first atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima on August 6, Three days later another bomb was dropped on Nagasaki. On August 14, 1945 the Japanese surrendered.
87MODEL OF “LITTLE BOY” ATOMIC BOMB ENOLA GAY, PLANE THAT DROPPED THE BOMBCREW OF THE ENOLA GAY THE PLANE THAT DROPPED THE FIRST ATOMIC BOMB ON JAPAN
88THE FIRST ATOMIC BOMB WAS DROPPED ON THE CITY OF HIROSHIMA AUGUST 6TH, 1945, 70,000 KILLED AND EVEN MORE WOUNDED
89A second atomic bomb was dropped on Nagasaki and the Japanese surrendered AUGUST 9TH, 40,000 KILLED