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Comprehension Part I- Book Knowledge Part II- Reading Comprehension Strategies This publication is based on the Kindergarten Teacher Reading Academy, ©2002.

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Presentation on theme: "Comprehension Part I- Book Knowledge Part II- Reading Comprehension Strategies This publication is based on the Kindergarten Teacher Reading Academy, ©2002."— Presentation transcript:

1 Comprehension Part I- Book Knowledge Part II- Reading Comprehension Strategies This publication is based on the Kindergarten Teacher Reading Academy, ©2002 University of Texas System and the Texas Education Agency, which has been reprinted and modified with their permission.

2 2 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Comprehension Book Knowledge general knowledge of print and book concepts enhanced as children participate in teacher read- alouds and other literacy-related activities Book knowledge is...

3 3 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Comprehension that print is read from left to right what a letter is what a word is what a sentence is that there are spaces between words the function of capital letters and punctuation marks that oral language can be written and then read Print Concepts Include knowing…

4 4 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Comprehension that a book is for reading the function and location of a book’s front, back, top, and bottom how to turn the pages properly where to begin reading the functions of print and pictures title, author, and illustrator Book Concepts Include understanding …

5 5 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Comprehension Teach print and book concepts with the whole class, in flexible small groups, or one-on-one, depending on children’s abilities and needs. Grouping for Instruction

6 6 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Comprehension Model how to read and handle books Discuss parts of books Teach concepts of print Book Knowledge Instruction

7 7 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Comprehension Children enter school with differing literacy-related experiences and knowledge, usually because of their differing experiences with books and print at home. By differentiating instruction, and providing scaffolded support, you can meet the diverse needs of your students. Scaffolding Instruction

8 8 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Comprehension Regularly monitor daily reading activities Use checklists to record and document progress Progress Monitoring

9 9 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Comprehension Remember...

10 Comprehension Part II Reading Comprehension Strategies This publication is based on K-2 Teacher Reading Academies, ©2002 University of Texas System and the Texas Education Agency, which has been reprinted and modified with their permission.

11 11 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Comprehension Survey of Knowledge Expository texts Genres Comprehension Narrative texts Strategies Think Aloud Text Text structure Metacognition Strategic readers Explicit questions Implicit questions

12 12 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Comprehension Effective Reading Instruction

13 13 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Comprehension Comprehension “Intentional thinking during which meaning is constructed through interactions between text and reader.” -Harris & Hodges, 1995 “Enhanced when readers actively relate ideas in print to their own knowledge and experiences and construct mental representations in memory.” -National Reading Panel, 2000

14 14 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Comprehension Research-Based Comprehension Instruction Comprehension instruction can include showing students how to... Monitor their comprehension Summarize Recognize story structure Use graphic organizers Answer and generate questions

15 15 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Comprehension Effective Comprehension Instruction Includes: Helping students understand narrative and expository texts Helping students to become strategic, metacognitive readers so they will understand what they read Teaching comprehension strategies Incorporating a variety of activities to improve comprehension before, during, and after reading Promoting wide reading Scaffolding questions to promote higher order thinking skills

16 16 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Comprehension Comprehension Strategies Comprehension strategies are... Plans or procedures that readers use and apply when they hear text read aloud, when they read text with a teacher, or when they read independently.

17 17 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Comprehension Refers to children’s understanding of stories and other texts that are read aloud to them Lays the foundation for children to later be able to “understand what they read, remember what they read, and communicate with others about what they read” — National Institute for Literacy, 2001, p. 48 What Is Listening Comprehension? Listening Comprehension...

18 18 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Comprehension Listening Comprehension is enhanced as children listen to stories that are read aloud, participate in discussions of stories, and engage in other literacy-related activities.

19 19 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Comprehension Listening Comprehension Instruction When you read aloud, encourage children to... Make predictions Answer questions about the book’s content Read and talk along Share their own interests related to the book content Ask questions of you and their peers Reenact or retell the story

20 20 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Comprehension Progress Monitoring: Listening Comprehension Some informal ways of knowing if children understand what is being read to them are: — asking questions that will help children clarify the text — having discussions about the text — observing children’s behavior and listening to their responses — having children retell or dramatize the story Reading inventories usually measure children’s listening comprehension

21 21 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Comprehension Teacher read-alouds help children “gain the knowledge and language skill that will enable good comprehension later on. Reading aloud increases background knowledge, builds vocabulary, and familiarizes children with the language in books.” —Hall & Moats, 2000, p. 33 Read-Aloud Sessions

22 22 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Comprehension Benefits of Read-Aloud Sessions

23 23 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Comprehension Schedule time for read-aloud sessions Use a variety of grouping formats including one-on-one, small groups, and whole class Select different types of books Activate and build background knowledge Teach new words and concepts Effective Read-Aloud Sessions: Before Reading

24 24 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Comprehension It’s the talk that surrounds (before and after) the reading aloud of books that is so important for enhancing children’s oral language, vocabulary development, and listening comprehension. Stop a few times for reactions, comments, predictions, and questions Avoid long discussions Effective Read-Aloud Sessions: During Reading

25 25 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Comprehension Engage children in discussions which go beyond literal comprehension Focus on rare and challenging words Repeat-read favorite books Provide opportunities for story retell and dramatization Effective Read-Aloud Sessions: After Reading

26 26 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Comprehension Select one of the children’s books you brought to the Institute Planning a Read-Aloud Session List vocabulary words to teach Write one prediction question and one follow-up question Develop several statements using the cloze procedure to prompt children to use new vocabulary words During reading: After reading: Before reading:

27 27 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Comprehension Text Talk Present questions that elicit greater language production and explicitly teach sophisticated vocabulary found in books. “Background Knowledge” How can you help children learn to focus on background knowledge that specifically relates to story information? Why is this important?

28 28 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Comprehension Motivating Children to Read Promote a variety of literacy activities…. Sharing books by “reading” with peers Retelling stories that have been read aloud Drawing and writing about books Checking out books to read at home

29 29 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Comprehension Teaching Comprehension Strategies Model and discuss: — What a given strategy is and why it ’ s important — How, when, and where to use a strategy — Which strategies work best in certain instances — How to apply different strategies to different types of texts and reading situations Provide extensive practice

30 30 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Comprehension Comprehension Framework Before During After Reading

31 31 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Comprehension Before Reading Set a purpose for reading Preview the text to: —Activate and build students’ background knowledge —Introduce vocabulary —Help students make predictions

32 32 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Comprehension Before Reading: Preview Text to Make Predictions Before reading, set a purpose for reading and make predictions about the content of the text Then, read, stop, check predictions, and make more predictions Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA)

33 33 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Comprehension Before Reading: Activate and Use Background Knowledge Help students make connections between the content of what they read and their real-life experiences. Brainstorming Webbing

34 34 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Comprehension Understanding Different Types of Texts tell stories follow a familiar story structure include short stories, folktales, tall tales, myths, fables, legends, autobiographies, biographies, fantasies, historical fiction, mysteries, science fiction, plays explain information or tell about topics provide a framework for comprehension of content-area textbooks include informational books, content-area textbooks, newspapers, magazines, brochures, catalogues Narrative TextsExpository Texts

35 35 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Comprehension Reading Aloud Different Types of Texts Reading narrative and expository texts aloud to children helps them: Make connections to real-life experiences and build background knowledge Increase their vocabulary and understand different types of books

36 36 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Comprehension The setting and a character or characters with a problem to solve or goal to achieve, introduced at the beginning of a story A series of plot episodes in the middle of a story The resolution of the problem or the attainment of the goal, at the end of the story Teaching Narrative Story Structure Story elements generally include:

37 37 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Comprehension Narrative Story Maps Asking questions within the framework of a story map helps students visually organize and focus on the key story elements in narrative texts.

38 38 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Comprehension Teaching Expository Text Structure Organizational structure of expository texts can differ from one text to another and sometimes within a single passage.

39 39 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Comprehension Narrative and Expository Cards Are used before, during, and after reading narrative and expository texts BeforeDuring After

40 40 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Comprehension Graphic Organizers Can guide students’ thinking and help them remember important elements and information in both narrative and expository texts Can be used before, during, and after reading

41 41 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Comprehension During Reading Stop for reactions, comments, questions, and predictions Avoid too many interruptions

42 42 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Comprehension During Reading (cont.) The goal of comprehension - monitoring instruction is to develop students’ awareness of their own understanding of what they are reading. know if they are understanding what they read know what they can do to correct comprehension difficulties Students :

43 43 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Comprehension During Reading: Self-Monitoring Comprehension Strategies Think Alouds... can help students learn how to monitor or check their own understanding

44 44 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Comprehension Monitoring Understanding Model: By thinking aloud, you can model what good readers do to help monitor their understanding of what they are reading. How you picture in our mind what is happening in a story or book How you reread certain parts How you stop and summarize what has happened How you regularly make predictions

45 45 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Comprehension After Reading determine important or main ideas and summarize draw conclusions and make inferences focus on story structure and themes Help students:

46 46 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Comprehension After Reading: Determining Main Ideas and Summarizing Determining main ideas involves recognizing the most important ideas of paragraphs or sections of a text Summarizing links the main ideas together Graphic organizers can help students remember and organize important information

47 47 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Comprehension After Reading: Get the Gist —Who or what is the paragraph about? —Tell the most important thing about the who or what —Tell the main idea in 10 words or less Explain what “get the gist” means Have students read one paragraph or section of a text at a time Help students determine the main idea:

48 48 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Comprehension After Reading: Summarizing Summaries are brief, concise statements of the main ideas and most important information Summarizing requires readers to: First, identify the main ideas of individual paragraphs or sections of a text Then, link the main ideas together into a summary of what was read

49 49 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Comprehension Reciprocal Teaching: Multiple-Strategy Instruction Reciprocal teaching: Is defined as a dialogue between teachers and students for the purpose of jointly constructing the meaning of text. The steps include: Summarizing Questioning Clarifying Predicting Palinscar, 1986

50 50 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Comprehension Improving Comprehension Asking questions to develop both basic and higher order thinking skills Having meaningful discussions Using graphic organizers can help students develop and extend meaning and make connections to personal experiences before, during, and after reading

51 51 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Comprehension Scaffolding: Using Different Types of Questions Open-ended Questions Literal Questions Encourage students to become aware of the information in the text. Encourage students to extend their thinking about the text and to elaborate as they discuss the text.

52 52 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Comprehension Continuum of Questions and Responses Ask questions before, during, and after reading Simple Complex Explicit Who? What? When? Where? Explicit Who? What? When? Where? Implicit How? Why? What if? Implicit How? Why? What if? Responses: Recall facts, events, and names Focus on information in the text Rephrase text that has just been read Move away from what can be seen on the page Analyze and elaborate information Focus on thinking about what has been read and prior knowledge (making inferences) Make connections

53 53 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Comprehension Answering/Asking Different Types of Questions Level One Text to Text: involve responses that can be found word-for-word in the text (literal) Level Two Text to Text: can be answered by looking in the text, but the answers are more complex and require a response of one sentence or more Level Three Text to Self or Text to World: cannot be answered by looking in the text; they require students to think about what they have read, think about what they already know, and think about how it all fits together SIMPLE COMPLEX

54 54 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Comprehension Scaffolding to Higher Thinking Levels Bloom’s Taxonomy Level 2 Level 1 Evaluation Synthesis Analysis Knowledge Comprehension Application

55 55 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Comprehension Using Self-Monitoring Comprehension Strategies Choose one of the children’s books you brought to the Institute Fold your Thinking Aloud sign in half Take turns reading one page at a time Use the Reading for Understanding strategy card

56 56 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Comprehension Kentucky Standards: Program of Studies Reading (1.2) Arts and Humanities (2.24, 2.25) Meaning of text Vocabulary Experience with text Monitoring Retelling Summarizing Text structure

57 57 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Comprehension Kentucky Standards: Core Content Literature subdomain 1 Persuasion subdomain 3 Reading Skills enable students to comprehend all types of reading materials. The coding numbers assigned to each bullet reflect that reading skills are assessed through all four types of reading. To complete the code, replace the x with the appropriate subdomain number (e.g., 1 for literature, 2 for information). RD-E-x.0.1 Use word recognition strategies (e.g., phonetic principles, context clues, structural analysis) to determine pronunciations and meanings of words in passages. RD-E-x.0.2 Use knowledge of synonyms, antonyms, homonyms, and compound words for comprehension. Literary Reading includes whole texts and excerpts from materials such as short stories, novels, essays, poetry, plays, and scripts. The reading materials represent various historical and cultural perspectives. RD-E Explain the meaning of a passage taken from texts appropriate for elementary school students. RD-E Demonstrate knowledge of the characteristics of fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and plays. RD-E Describe characters, plot, setting, and problem/solution of a passage. RD-E Explain a character’s actions based on a passage. RD-E Connect literature to students’ lives and real world issues. Informational Reading includes whole texts and excerpts from materials such as journals, magazines, newspaper articles, letters, brochures, reference materials, essays, nonfiction books, and electronic texts. RD-E Use text features (e.g., pictures, lists, tables, charts, graphs, tables of contents, indexes, glossaries, headings, captions) to understand a passage. RD-E Identify the organizational pattern in a passage: sequence, cause and effect, and/or comparison and contrast. RD-E Identify main ideas and details that support them. RD-E Make predictions and draw conclusions based on what is read. RD-E Connect the content of a passage to students’ lives and/or real world issues. Persuasive Reading includes whole texts and excerpts from materials such as magazine and newspaper articles, brochures, letters, proposals, speeches, editorials, electronic texts, essays, opinion columns, and advertisements. RD-E Identify an author’s opinion about a subject. RD-E Identify fact and/or opinion. RD-E Identify information that is supported by fact. Practical/Workplace Reading includes whole texts and excerpts from materials such as articles, letters, memos, brochures, electronic texts, warranties, recipes, forms, consumer texts, manuals, schedules, and directions. RD-E Locate and apply information for authentic purposes. RD-E Follow the directions in a passage. RD-E Explain why the correct sequence is important. RD-E Interpret specialized vocabulary (words and terms specific to understanding the content) found in practical/workplace passages. RD-E Identify text features and organizational aids (e.g., bold face print, italics, illustrations) that provide additional clarity. RD-E-x.0.3 Know that some words have multiple meanings and identify the correct meaning as the word is used. RD-E-x.0.4 Recognize the meaning of a word when a prefix or suffix has been added to a base word. RD-E-x.0.5 Recognize the purpose of capitalization, punctuation, boldface type, italics, and indentations used by the author. Reading Skills (assessed across all reading types) Information subdomain 2 Practical/ Workplace subdomain 4

58 58 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Comprehension The Importance of Comprehension “Even teachers in the primary grades can begin to build the foundation for reading comprehension. Reading is a complex process that develops over time.... emphasize text comprehension from the beginning, rather than waiting until students have mastered ‘the basics’ of reading.... Beginning readers, as well as more advanced readers, must understand that the ultimate goal of reading is comprehension.” —National Institute for Literacy, 2001, p. 55

59 59 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Comprehension Remember... “Comprehension is the reason for reading.... Research over 30 years has shown that instruction in comprehension can help students understand what they read, remember what they read, and communicate with others about what they read.” —National Institute for Literacy, 2001, p. 48


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