2 Book Knowledge general knowledge of print and book concepts enhanced as children participate in teacher read-alouds and other literacy-related activitiesBookknowledgeis . . .
3 Print Concepts Include knowing… that print is read from left to right what a letter iswhat a word iswhat a sentence isthat there are spaces between wordsthe function of capital letters and punctuation marksthat oral language can be written and then readInclude knowing…
4 Book Concepts Include understanding… that a book is for reading the function and location of a book’s front, back, top, and bottomhow to turn the pages properlywhere to begin readingthe functions of print and picturestitle, author, and illustratorInclude understanding…
5 Grouping for Instruction Teach print and book concepts with the whole class, in flexible small groups, or one-on-one, depending on children’s abilities and needs.
6 Book Knowledge Instruction Model how to read and handle booksDiscuss parts of booksTeach concepts of print
7 Scaffolding Instruction Children enter school with differing literacy-related experiences and knowledge, usually because of their differing experiences with books and print at home.By differentiating instruction, and providing scaffolded support, you can meet the diverse needs of your students.
8 Progress Monitoring Regularly monitor daily reading activities Use checklists to record and document progress
13 Comprehension“Intentional thinking during which meaning is constructed through interactions between text and reader.”-Harris & Hodges, 1995“Enhanced when readers actively relate ideas in print to their own knowledge and experiences and construct mental representations in memory.”-National Reading Panel, 2000
14 Research-Based Comprehension Instruction Monitor their comprehensionSummarizeRecognize story structureUse graphic organizersAnswer and generate questionsComprehension instruction can include showing students how to . . .
15 Effective Comprehension Instruction Includes:Helping students understand narrative and expository textsHelping students to become strategic, metacognitive readers so they will understand what they readTeaching comprehension strategiesIncorporating a variety of activities to improve comprehension before, during, and after readingPromoting wide readingScaffolding questions to promote higher order thinking skills
16 Comprehension Strategies Plans or procedures that readers use and apply when they hear text read aloud, when they read text with a teacher, or when they read independently.Comprehensionstrategiesare . . .
17 What Is Listening Comprehension? Refers to children’s understanding of stories and other texts that are read aloud to themLays the foundation for children to later be able to “understand what they read, remember what they read, and communicate with others about what they read”—National Institute for Literacy, 2001, p. 48Listening Comprehension . . .
18 Listening Comprehension . . . . . . is enhanced as children listen to stories that are read aloud, participate in discussions of stories, and engage in other literacy-related activities.
19 Listening Comprehension Instruction Make predictionsAnswer questions about the book’s contentRead and talk alongShare their own interests related to the book contentAsk questions of you and their peersReenact or retell the storyWhen you read aloud, encourage children to . . .
20 Progress Monitoring: Listening Comprehension Some informal ways of knowing if children understand what is being read to them are:asking questions that will help children clarify the texthaving discussions about the textobserving children’s behavior and listening to their responseshaving children retell or dramatize the storyReading inventories usually measure children’s listening comprehension
21 Read-Aloud SessionsTeacher read-alouds help children “gain the knowledge and language skill that will enable good comprehension later on. Reading aloud increases background knowledge, builds vocabulary, and familiarizes children with the language in books.”—Hall & Moats, 2000, p. 33
23 Effective Read-Aloud Sessions: Before Reading Schedule time for read-aloud sessionsUse a variety of grouping formats including one-on-one, small groups, and whole classSelect different types of booksActivate and build background knowledgeTeach new words and concepts
24 Effective Read-Aloud Sessions: During Reading Stop a few times for reactions, comments, predictions, and questionsAvoid long discussionsIt’s the talk that surrounds (before and after) the reading aloud of books that is so important for enhancing children’s oral language, vocabulary development, and listening comprehension.
25 Effective Read-Aloud Sessions: After Reading Engage children in discussions which go beyond literal comprehensionFocus on rare and challenging wordsRepeat-read favorite booksProvide opportunities for story retell and dramatization
26 Planning a Read-Aloud Session Select one of the children’s books you brought to the InstituteBefore reading:List vocabulary words to teachDuring reading:Write one prediction question and one follow-up questionAfter reading:Develop several statements using the cloze procedure to prompt children to use new vocabulary words
27 Text Talk “Background Knowledge” Present questions that elicit greater language production and explicitly teach sophisticated vocabulary found in books.“Background Knowledge”How can you help children learn to focus on background knowledge that specifically relates to story information?Why is this important?
28 Motivating Children to Read Sharing books by “reading” with peersRetelling stories that have been read aloudDrawing and writing about booksChecking out books to read at homePromote a variety of literacy activities….
29 Teaching Comprehension Strategies Model and discuss:— What a given strategy is and why it’s important— How, when, and where to use a strategy— Which strategies work best in certain instances— How to apply different strategies to different types of texts and reading situationsProvide extensive practice
31 Before Reading Set a purpose for reading Preview the text to: Activate and build students’ background knowledgeIntroduce vocabularyHelp students make predictions
32 Before Reading: Preview Text to Make Predictions Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA)Before reading, set a purpose for reading and make predictions about the content of the textThen, read, stop, check predictions, and make more predictions
33 Before Reading: Activate and Use Background Knowledge Help students make connections between the content of what they read and their real-life experiences.BrainstormingWebbing
34 Understanding Different Types of Texts Narrative TextsExpository Textstell storiesfollow a familiar story structureinclude short stories, folktales, tall tales, myths, fables, legends, autobiographies, biographies, fantasies, historical fiction, mysteries, science fiction, playsexplain information or tell about topicsprovide a framework for comprehension of content-area textbooksinclude informational books, content-area textbooks, newspapers, magazines, brochures, catalogues
35 Reading Aloud Different Types of Texts Make connections to real-life experiences and build background knowledgeIncrease their vocabulary and understand different types of booksReading narrative and expository texts aloud to children helps them:
36 Teaching Narrative Story Structure The setting and a character or characters with a problem to solve or goal to achieve, introduced at the beginning of a storyA series of plot episodes in the middle of a storyThe resolution of the problem or the attainment of the goal, at the end of the storyStory elements generally include:
37 Narrative Story MapsAsking questions within the framework of a story map helps students visually organize and focus on the key story elements in narrative texts.
38 Teaching Expository Text Structure Organizational structure of expository texts can differ from one text to another and sometimes within a single passage.
39 Narrative and Expository Cards Are used before, during, and after reading narrative and expository textsBeforeDuringAfter
40 Graphic OrganizersCan guide students’ thinking and help them remember important elements and information in both narrative and expository textsCan be used before, during, and after reading
41 During ReadingStop for reactions, comments, questions, and predictionsAvoid too many interruptions
42 During Reading (cont.) Students: The goal of comprehension - monitoring instruction is to develop students’ awareness of their own understanding of what they are reading.Students:know if they are understanding what they readknow what they can do to correct comprehension difficulties
43 During Reading: Self-Monitoring Comprehension Strategies can help students learn how to monitor or check their own understandingThink Alouds . . .
44 Monitoring Understanding By thinking aloud, you can model what good readers do to help monitor their understanding of what they are reading.How you picture in our mind what is happening in a story or bookHow you reread certain partsHow you stop and summarize what has happenedHow you regularly make predictionsModel:
45 After Reading Help students: determine important or main ideas and summarizedraw conclusions and make inferencesfocus on story structure and themes
46 After Reading: Determining Main Ideas and Summarizing Determining main ideas involves recognizing the most important ideas of paragraphs or sections of a textSummarizing links the main ideas togetherGraphic organizers can help students remember and organize important information
47 After Reading: Get the Gist Explain what “get the gist” meansHave students read one paragraph or section of a text at a timeHelp students determine the main idea:Who or what is the paragraph about?Tell the most important thing about the who or whatTell the main idea in 10 words or less
48 After Reading: Summarizing Summaries are brief, concise statements of the main ideas and most important informationSummarizing requires readers to:First, identify the main ideas of individual paragraphs or sections of a textThen, link the main ideas together into a summary of what was read
49 Reciprocal Teaching: Multiple-Strategy Instruction Is defined as a dialogue between teachers and students for the purpose of jointly constructing the meaning of text.The steps include:SummarizingQuestioningClarifyingPredictingPalinscar, 1986
50 Improving Comprehension Asking questions to develop both basic and higher order thinking skillsHaving meaningful discussionsUsing graphic organizerscan help students develop and extend meaning and make connections to personal experiences before, during, and after reading
51 Scaffolding: Using Different Types of Questions Literal QuestionsEncourage students to become aware of the information in the text.Open-ended QuestionsEncourage students to extend their thinking about the text and to elaborate as they discuss the text.
52 Continuum of Questions and Responses Ask questions before, during, and after readingSimpleComplexExplicitWho? What? When? Where?ImplicitHow? Why? What if?Responses:Responses:Move away from what can be seen on the pageAnalyze and elaborate informationFocus on thinking about what has been read and prior knowledge (making inferences)Make connectionsRecall facts, events, and namesFocus on information in the textRephrase text that has just been read
53 Answering/Asking Different Types of Questions SIMPLELevel One Text to Text:involve responses that can be found word-for-word in the text (literal)Level Two Text to Text:can be answered by looking in the text, but the answers are more complex and require a response of one sentence or moreLevel Three Text to Self or Text to World:cannot be answered by looking in the text; they require students to think about what they have read, think about what they already know, and think about how it all fits togetherCOMPLEX
54 Scaffolding to Higher Thinking Levels Bloom’s TaxonomyEvaluationSynthesisLevel 2AnalysisApplicationComprehensionLevel 1Knowledge
55 Using Self-Monitoring Comprehension Strategies Choose one of the children’s books you brought to the InstituteFold your Thinking Aloud sign in halfTake turns reading one page at a timeUse the Reading for Understanding strategy card
56 Kentucky Standards: Program of Studies Reading (1.2) Arts and Humanities (2.24, 2.25)Meaning of textVocabularyExperience with textMonitoringRetellingSummarizingText structure
57 Kentucky Standards: Core Content Literaturesubdomain 1Persuasionsubdomain 3Reading Skills enable students to comprehend all types of reading materials.The coding numbers assigned to each bullet reflect that reading skills are assessed through all four types of reading. To complete the code, replace the x with the appropriate subdomain number (e.g., 1 for literature, 2 for information).RD-E-x.0.1Use word recognition strategies (e.g., phonetic principles, context clues, structural analysis) to determine pronunciations and meanings of words in passages.RD-E-x.0.2Use knowledge of synonyms, antonyms, homonyms, and compound words for comprehension.Literary Reading includes whole texts and excerpts from materials such as short stories, novels, essays, poetry, plays, and scripts. The reading materials represent various historical and cultural perspectives.RD-E-1.0.6Explain the meaning of a passage taken from texts appropriate for elementary school students.RD-E-1.0.7Demonstrate knowledge of the characteristics of fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and plays.RD-E-1.0.8Describe characters, plot, setting, and problem/solution of a passage.RD-E-1.0.9Explain a character’s actions based on a passage.RD-EConnect literature to students’ lives and real world issues.Informational Reading includes whole texts and excerpts from materials such as journals, magazines, newspaper articles, letters, brochures, reference materials, essays, nonfiction books, and electronic texts.RD-E-2.0.6Use text features (e.g., pictures, lists, tables, charts, graphs, tables of contents, indexes, glossaries, headings, captions) to understand a passage.RD-E-2.0.7Identify the organizational pattern in a passage: sequence, cause and effect, and/or comparison and contrast.RD-E-2.0.8Identify main ideas and details that support them.RD-E-2.0.9Make predictions and draw conclusions based on what is read.RD-EConnect the content of a passage to students’ lives and/or real world issues.Persuasive Reading includes whole texts and excerpts from materials such as magazine and newspaper articles, brochures, letters, proposals, speeches, editorials, electronic texts, essays, opinion columns, and advertisements.RD-E-3.0.6Identify an author’s opinion about a subject.RD-E-3.0.7Identify fact and/or opinion.RD-E-3.0.8Identify information that is supported by fact.Practical/Workplace Reading includes whole texts and excerpts from materials such as articles, letters, memos, brochures, electronic texts, warranties, recipes, forms, consumer texts, manuals, schedules, and directions.RD-E-4.0.6Locate and apply information for authentic purposes.RD-E-4.0.7Follow the directions in a passage.RD-E-4.0.8Explain why the correct sequence is important.RD-E-4.0.9Interpret specialized vocabulary (words and terms specific to understanding the content) found in practical/workplace passages.RD-EIdentify text features and organizational aids (e.g., bold face print, italics, illustrations) that provide additional clarity.RD-E-x.0.3Know that some words have multiple meanings and identify the correct meaning as the word is used.RD-E-x.0.4Recognize the meaning of a word when a prefix or suffix has been added to a base word.RD-E-x.0.5Recognize the purpose of capitalization, punctuation, boldface type, italics, and indentations used by the author.Reading Skills(assessed across all reading types)Informationsubdomain 2Practical/Workplacesubdomain 4
58 The Importance of Comprehension “Even teachers in the primary grades can begin to build the foundation for reading comprehension. Reading is a complex process that develops over time emphasize text comprehension from the beginning, rather than waiting until students have mastered ‘the basics’ of reading Beginning readers, as well as more advanced readers, must understand that the ultimate goal of reading is comprehension.”—National Institute for Literacy, 2001, p. 55
59 Remember . . .“Comprehension is the reason for reading Research over 30 years has shown that instruction in comprehension can help students understand what they read, remember what they read, and communicate with others about what they read.”—National Institute for Literacy, 2001, p. 48