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Elkhart Community Schools 1. 2 “To infer as we read is to go beyond literal interpretation and to open a world of meaning deeply connected to our lives.”

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Presentation on theme: "Elkhart Community Schools 1. 2 “To infer as we read is to go beyond literal interpretation and to open a world of meaning deeply connected to our lives.”"— Presentation transcript:

1 Elkhart Community Schools 1

2 2 “To infer as we read is to go beyond literal interpretation and to open a world of meaning deeply connected to our lives.” ~ Ellin Keene Author of Mosaic of Thought “To infer as we read is to go beyond literal interpretation and to open a world of meaning deeply connected to our lives.” ~ Ellin Keene Author of Mosaic of Thought

3 Elkhart Community Schools 3 Inference Background Knowledge (schema) Background Knowledge (schema) Making Connections Making Connections Questioning Predictions Imagination/ Visualization Imagination/ Visualization Analysis of Text: Interpretation/ Judgment Analysis of Text: Interpretation/ Judgment Drawing Conclusions

4 Elkhart Community Schools 4 “Questioning and inferring work in tandem to enhance understanding of text.” ~ Harvey & Goudvis Authors of Strategies That Work “Questioning and inferring work in tandem to enhance understanding of text.” ~ Harvey & Goudvis Authors of Strategies That Work

5 Elkhart Community Schools 5 Students’ language provides a clue to their thinking.

6 Elkhart Community Schools 6 Readers are able to think inferentially when they connect their background of information, ideas, and experiences with the text.

7 Elkhart Community Schools 7 It is important for the reader to have background knowledge about a text they are reading if they are expected to read inferentially.

8 Elkhart Community Schools 8 Word Clues + Experience Inference Word Clues + Experience Inference

9 Elkhart Community Schools 9 Dorothy Strickland shares, “For struggling readers, it is critical that we not only activate their knowledge of topics they must read about and study, but also be aware of situations in which they have little or no background knowledge so that we can build essential understandings before they begin reading.”

10 Elkhart Community Schools 10 Predicting is related to inferring BUT what’s the difference? Predicting is related to inferring BUT what’s the difference?

11 Elkhart Community Schools 11 “When you read, you use all your senses. You see things in your ‘mind’s eye’ and hear the sounds you connect to that about which you are reading.” ~ Guided Reading the Four Blocks Way

12 Elkhart Community Schools 12 “Proficient readers use images to draw conclusions, to create distinct and unique interpretations of the text, to recall details significant to the text, and to recall a text after it has been read.” ~ Ellin Keene

13 Elkhart Community Schools 13 “Inferring is the process of taking that which is stated in text and extrapolating it to one’s life to create a wholly original interpretation that, in turn, becomes part of one’s beliefs or knowledge.” ~ Ellin Keene

14 Elkhart Community Schools 14 “Proficient readers make connections between conclusions they draw and other beliefs or knowledge.” ~ Ellin Keene

15 Elkhart Community Schools 15 All the processes work together. Each works in concert with the others to aid the reader in comprehending text.

16 Elkhart Community Schools 16

17 Elkhart Community Schools 17 Step 1 – The teacher explains the strategy (reading between the lines) using short scenarios, riddles, or charades that require students to add up clues and make a conclusion. Step 2 – The teacher demonstrates how to apply the strategy successfully. Step 3 – The teacher thinks aloud to model the mental processes he/she uses when he/she reads. Step 1 – The teacher explains the strategy (reading between the lines) using short scenarios, riddles, or charades that require students to add up clues and make a conclusion. Step 2 – The teacher demonstrates how to apply the strategy successfully. Step 3 – The teacher thinks aloud to model the mental processes he/she uses when he/she reads.

18 Elkhart Community Schools 18 Do several think alouds for this strategy. Use picture books for students of all ages. Students are only observers at this stage. Demonstrate the use of sticky notes to code connections, questions, predictions, conclusions, judgments, etc. Allow students to discuss what they observed following the think aloud. Do several think alouds for this strategy. Use picture books for students of all ages. Students are only observers at this stage. Demonstrate the use of sticky notes to code connections, questions, predictions, conclusions, judgments, etc. Allow students to discuss what they observed following the think aloud.

19 Elkhart Community Schools 19  Use a variety of “lifted text” from different types of books giving everyone a copy or using the overhead.  Use whole group to small group model.  Use short text such as magazine and newspaper articles and poetry.  Encourage students to code their inferences with sticky notes or highlighting.  Use concept maps, two-column notes, and margin writing to record thinking.  Engage students in conversation about their inferences with the text with partners or whole group.  Use a variety of “lifted text” from different types of books giving everyone a copy or using the overhead.  Use whole group to small group model.  Use short text such as magazine and newspaper articles and poetry.  Encourage students to code their inferences with sticky notes or highlighting.  Use concept maps, two-column notes, and margin writing to record thinking.  Engage students in conversation about their inferences with the text with partners or whole group.

20 Elkhart Community Schools 20  Guide students’ thinking before reading by using anticipation guides or prediction guides.  Show students how to do a chapter tour or preview of nonfiction text to help them make predictions about the chapter.  Point out connections between inference and the other strategies they’ve learned.  Text sets can be used to have students reflect on inferences and compare them with different books within the set.  Use a book that can create an “anchor” experience for the class.  Guide students’ thinking before reading by using anticipation guides or prediction guides.  Show students how to do a chapter tour or preview of nonfiction text to help them make predictions about the chapter.  Point out connections between inference and the other strategies they’ve learned.  Text sets can be used to have students reflect on inferences and compare them with different books within the set.  Use a book that can create an “anchor” experience for the class.

21 Elkhart Community Schools 21  The teacher gives the students text that is easy to read on their own.  Students may practice their strategy alone, in pairs, or in small groups such as book clubs or literature circles.  Students can discuss and compare their inferences with other students.  The teacher confers with the students and gives them feedback.  The teacher gives the students text that is easy to read on their own.  Students may practice their strategy alone, in pairs, or in small groups such as book clubs or literature circles.  Students can discuss and compare their inferences with other students.  The teacher confers with the students and gives them feedback.

22 Elkhart Community Schools 22 Assessing Application of Inference Keene’s Major Point Interview Anecdotal Records Journal Responses Other Written Responses Assessing Application of Inference Keene’s Major Point Interview Anecdotal Records Journal Responses Other Written Responses

23 Elkhart Community Schools 23 Fiction and Poetry: Allows a variety of interpretation Nonfiction/Content Area Text: Permits a narrow range of interpretation Best for drawing conclusions, predictions, questioning, and determining importance

24 Elkhart Community Schools 24 Word meanings Meanings of text Meanings of larger themes of texts Word meanings Meanings of text Meanings of larger themes of texts

25 Elkhart Community Schools 25 Predicting Words In Text (before reading) Vocabulary Strategy: Connect Two Cloze Technique Guess the Covered Word Predicting Words In Text (before reading) Vocabulary Strategy: Connect Two Cloze Technique Guess the Covered Word

26 Elkhart Community Schools 26 Anaphoric Inferences: A pronoun or noun- phrase that refers to a previous text constituent or to an entity already introduced in the mental model. Bridging Inferences: These are any inferences that a reader needs to systematically or conceptually relate the sentence being read with the previous content. These are sometimes called backward inferences. Anaphoric Inferences: A pronoun or noun- phrase that refers to a previous text constituent or to an entity already introduced in the mental model. Bridging Inferences: These are any inferences that a reader needs to systematically or conceptually relate the sentence being read with the previous content. These are sometimes called backward inferences.

27 Elkhart Community Schools 27 Explanation Based Inferences: The event being read about is explained by a causal chain or network of previous events. These are sometimes called causal antecedent inferences. Goal Inferences: The reader infers that an agent has a motive that explains an intentional action. Elaborative Inferences: These are properties of entities, facts, and other associations that are not explained by causal mechanisms. Explanation Based Inferences: The event being read about is explained by a causal chain or network of previous events. These are sometimes called causal antecedent inferences. Goal Inferences: The reader infers that an agent has a motive that explains an intentional action. Elaborative Inferences: These are properties of entities, facts, and other associations that are not explained by causal mechanisms.

28 Elkhart Community Schools 28 Predictive Inferences: The reader forecasts what events will causally unfold after the current event that is being read. These are sometimes called causal consequences or forward references. Process Inferences: These inferences specify the detailed steps, manner, or dynamic characteristics of an event as it unfolds. Predictive Inferences: The reader forecasts what events will causally unfold after the current event that is being read. These are sometimes called causal consequences or forward references. Process Inferences: These inferences specify the detailed steps, manner, or dynamic characteristics of an event as it unfolds.

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30 Elkhart Community Schools 30 “Art is so much more interesting if everything isn’t in the picture. And so it is with inferring.” From: I Read It But I Don’t Get It ~ Cris Tovani “Art is so much more interesting if everything isn’t in the picture. And so it is with inferring.” From: I Read It But I Don’t Get It ~ Cris Tovani

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