Presentation on theme: "Foundational Skills and Processes of Comprehension in the Early Years (P-4) Kingston Network of Schools 5 May 2010 Julie Kerr."— Presentation transcript:
Foundational Skills and Processes of Comprehension in the Early Years (P-4) Kingston Network of Schools 5 May 2010 Julie Kerr Educational Consultant
Instructional Level Text Look at the text you have planned to use with a group of children this week/shortly. Why did you choose this text? What is your planned teaching focus? Why? What evidence do you have?
Instructional Text Level Name of text:Type of text: Broad band level / Instructional level Language, layout and/or vocabulary challenges within this text Planned teaching focus
Comprehension Comprehending refers to the thinking readers do before, during and after reading. Processing refers to the reader’s complex set of strategic actions, including the use of visible information in the text print and art and the thinking that readers do before, during and after reading. Fountas and Pinnell, Teaching for Comprehending and Fluency, 2006, page 16
Processing Visible and Invisible Information In the text Visible Information Symbols and signs – letters, words Print conventions – left to right, use of space, layout, font, punctuation, italics and boldface Text tools – organisational tools (headings, table of contents), informational tools (captions, glossary, pronunciation guides) In the Reader’s Head Invisible Information Language knowledge – phonology (sounds), vocabulary, syntax, (language structure), phrases, sentences, whole texts, literacy language Content Knowledge – facts, concepts, categories Personal knowledge – emotions, memories, images, culture Textual knowledge – how texts are organised (narrative, expository), genre, literary elements (character, setting, plot) Processing a Written Text Fountas & Pinnell (2006) Teaching for Comprehending and Fluency, p. 17
Reader Processing a Text Visible Information Invisible Information Knowledge Of Print Knowledge Of Visual Signs Knowledge Of Language Knowledge Of Content Knowledge From Personal Experience Knowledge Of Texts Knowledge Of Artistic Information Knowledge Of Tools Fountas & Pinnell (2006) Teaching for Comprehending and Fluency, p. 18
Processing a Written Text Thinking Within the text Thinking Beyond the text Thinking About the text Ways of Thinking
Solving WordsUsing a range of strategies to take words apart and understand what words mean. Monitoring and correcting Checking whether reading sounds right, looks right, and makes sense, and working to solve problems. Searching for and using information Searching for and using all kinds of information in a text. SummarizingPutting together and remembering important information and disregarding irrelevant information while reading. Maintaining fluencyIntegrating sources of information in a smoothly operating process that results in expressive, phrased reading. AdjustingReading in different ways as appropriate to the purpose for reading and type of text. Thinking Within the Text
Thinking Beyond the Text PredictingUsing what is known to think about what will follow while reading continuous text. Making Connections Personal World Text Searching for and using connections to knowledge gained through personal experiences, learning about the world, and reading other texts. InferringGoing beyond the literal meaning of a text tho think about what is not stated but is implied by the writer. SynthesizingPutting together information from the text and from the reader’s own background knowledge in order to create new understandings.
Thinking About the Text AnalysingExamining elements of a text to know more about how it is constructed and noticing aspects of the writer’s craft. CritiquingEvaluating a text based on the readers’ personal, world, or text knowledge and thinking critically about the ideas in it.
Matching Children to Text Easy Reading Level... >94% Instructional Reading Level – 94% Hard Reading Level... < 90%
Texts are selected at the instructional level of the students within the broad-banded Text Groups that support and challenge the reader. Selecting Texts
developmental stage of the learners and their identified needs. The prior knowledge and experiences the learners bring to the text. The learner’s interests. The instructional approach being used. The text type. The supports and challenges in the text. The specific text characteristics. When selecting texts, consider...
To select appropriate text you must be aware of: the degree of difficulty of the text and the balance between the supports and challenges identified in the text. Running records will assist in selection of an instructional text.
The role of the teacher... Is to assess the amount and type of support and suitability of the challenges for students when working with various texts. Instructional text is one in which the student achieves % accuracy after being introduced to the material and having read the text prior to the running record being taken.
Considerations when selecting texts from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds... Need to provide links to students’ understandings and experiences Need for texts that contain regular language patterns Text layout
Possible tense confusions Suffixes Singular/plural irregularities Consideration should also be given to:
Matching Students to Text 1.Look at the assessment data on a group you have identified as being “similar” in reading needs 2.What is the instructional level(s) of the children in this group? 3.What evidence do you have? 4.What are their reading strengths? 5.What skills do they need to develop? 6.What instructional level text have you chosen for this week? 7.What will be the focus of your teaching? 8.What evidence do you have that this is important now? 9.What supporting activities will you plan for this group following the teacher focused group session? Why?
Group Brainstorming Time Thinking Within the textThinking Beyond the textThinking About the text 1.Use your assessment records and the Text Characteristics document to work out what supports and challenges there are in your chosen instructional text. 2.Within your group, brainstorm the thinking that needs to be explicitly taught via this instructional text. (use the three categories)
Instructional Text Level Name of text:Type of text: Broad band level / Instructional level Language, layout and/or vocabulary challenges within this text Planned teaching focus Revised teaching focus Thinking within the textThinking beyond the textThinking about the text