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America and World War II APUSH Mr. McElhaney. AP Outline 21. The Second World War 21. The Second World War The rise of fascism and militarism in Japan,

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Presentation on theme: "America and World War II APUSH Mr. McElhaney. AP Outline 21. The Second World War 21. The Second World War The rise of fascism and militarism in Japan,"— Presentation transcript:

1 America and World War II APUSH Mr. McElhaney

2 AP Outline 21. The Second World War 21. The Second World War The rise of fascism and militarism in Japan, Italy, and Germany The rise of fascism and militarism in Japan, Italy, and GermanyJapan Prelude to war: policy of neutrality Prelude to war: policy of neutrality The attack on Pearl Harbor and United States declaration of war The attack on Pearl Harbor and United States declaration of war Fighting a multi-front war Fighting a multi-front war Diplomacy, war aims, and wartime conferences Diplomacy, war aims, and wartime conferences The United States as a global power in the Atomic Age The United States as a global power in the Atomic Age 22. The Home Front During the War Wartime mobilization of the economy Urban migration and demographic changes Women, work, and family during the war Civil liberties and civil rights during wartime War and regional development Expansion of government power

3 Terms to Know Treaty of Versailles Treaty of Versailles Good Neighbor Policy Good Neighbor Policy Buenos Aires Conference, 1936 Buenos Aires Conference, 1936 Washington Naval Conference, 1922 Washington Naval Conference, 1922 Kellogg-Briand Pact, 1928 Kellogg-Briand Pact, 1928 Stimson Doctrine Stimson Doctrine Trade Agreements Act Trade Agreements Act Election of 1940 Election of 1940 Axis Alliance, Mussolini, Hitler Axis Alliance, Mussolini, Hitler Appeasement/Munich Agreement Appeasement/Munich Agreement Lend-Lease Act, 1941 Lend-Lease Act, 1941 German-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact German-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact Selective Training and Service Act Selective Training and Service Act Tripartite Pact Tripartite Pact Maginot Line Maginot Line Battle of Britain/ Operation Sea Lion Battle of Britain/ Operation Sea Lion Atlantic Charter, 1941 Atlantic Charter, 1941 Hideki Tojo/Japan, China, Embargo Hideki Tojo/Japan, China, Embargo War Powers Act War Powers Act Charles A. Lindbergh (1930s) Charles A. Lindbergh (1930s) America First Committee America First Committee Reciprocal Trade Agreements, Reciprocal Trade Agreements, Europe then Japan Europe then Japan Mobilization, National War Labor Board Mobilization, National War Labor Board Japanese-American Internment, Korematsu v. US Japanese-American Internment, Korematsu v. US War in the Pacific War in Africa, Europe Eisenhower, Second Front, D-Day, Battle of the Bulge Servicemens Readjustment Act (G.I. Bill) Neutrality Acts, Four Freedoms Speech Rosie the Riveter, War Production Board African Americans in War Tuskegee Airmen, Phillip Randolph Holocaust and Jewish Wartime Conferences Casablanca Cairo Teheran Quebec Yalta Potsdam Manhattan Project Robert Oppenheimer Los Alamos, Alamogordo Harry S. Truman Decision to drop bomb, Nagasaki Marshall Plan Iron Curtain

4 Questions- Pre-World War II Basic questions you should be able to answer: Basic questions you should be able to answer: How does the US public respond to Japanese, Italian, and German militarism and aggression in the 1930s? How does the US public respond to Japanese, Italian, and German militarism and aggression in the 1930s? Was it inevitable that the United States was going to join the War? Was it inevitable that the United States was going to join the War? How does the Roosevelt administration try to stay out of the growing conflicts in Europe and Asia and what finally pushes the US into the conflict? How does the Roosevelt administration try to stay out of the growing conflicts in Europe and Asia and what finally pushes the US into the conflict? How was FDRs Good Neighbor policy a departure for American politicians since the 1890s? How was FDRs Good Neighbor policy a departure for American politicians since the 1890s?

5 Quiz 3-13 Respond to two of the following: Respond to two of the following: 1. How did FDR reinforce the policy toward Latin America begun by the Hoover administration? How did FDR reinforce the policy toward Latin America begun by the Hoover administration? How did FDR reinforce the policy toward Latin America begun by the Hoover administration? 2. Explain how the Stimson Doctrine is applied in relation to China. Explain how the Stimson Doctrine is applied in relation to China. Explain how the Stimson Doctrine is applied in relation to China. 3. What action does Congress take in an effort to support American neutrality? What action does Congress take in an effort to support American neutrality? What action does Congress take in an effort to support American neutrality?

6 United States Status After WWI After WWI US is considered Isolationist by many, because of the desire to stay out of international politics (not a member of League of Nations…Wilson and Republicans) After WWI US is considered Isolationist by many, because of the desire to stay out of international politics (not a member of League of Nations…Wilson and Republicans) Few international treaties: Few international treaties: Washington Naval Conference- limits naval armaments Washington Naval Conference- limits naval armaments Kellogg-Briand Pact-outlaws war Kellogg-Briand Pact-outlaws war Dawes Plan- reorganizes German WWI debt payments Dawes Plan- reorganizes German WWI debt payments Trade drives American motives Trade drives American motives Reduction of interference in Latin America (Good Neighbor) Reduction of interference in Latin America (Good Neighbor) Above all- popular opinion in US is to stay out of foreign wars! Above all- popular opinion in US is to stay out of foreign wars!

7 FDR and Foreign Affairs Similar to Wilson, FDR wanted to use power to maintain order Similar to Wilson, FDR wanted to use power to maintain order Moral and just principles Moral and just principles However, must abide by public opinion which is Isolationist However, must abide by public opinion which is Isolationist Interventionist Interventionist Appoints Cordell Hull as Secretary of State Appoints Cordell Hull as Secretary of State Basic views: Basic views: Isolation is not a lasting policy Isolation is not a lasting policy Technology impacts distance of oceans Technology impacts distance of oceans Important to maintain American interests Important to maintain American interests Reciprocal Reduction of Tariffs- will help the economy= countries that reduce tariffs, US will also reduce tariffs= more trade for both partners Reciprocal Reduction of Tariffs- will help the economy= countries that reduce tariffs, US will also reduce tariffs= more trade for both partners

8 Good Neighbor Policy FDR wanted to continue the cordial relations with the world and Latin America in particular FDR wanted to continue the cordial relations with the world and Latin America in particular Continued attempt begun with Hoover Continued attempt begun with Hoover Cooperation and non-interventionist Cooperation and non-interventionist Example: 1933 Montevideo International Conference- Uruguay Example: 1933 Montevideo International Conference- Uruguay Repudiated the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine Repudiated the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine Withdrew troops from Haiti Withdrew troops from Haiti Did not send troops to Cuba Did not send troops to Cuba 1936 FDR visited Buenos Aires, arranged meeting of LA nations supporting peace movement 1936 FDR visited Buenos Aires, arranged meeting of LA nations supporting peace movement

9 Mussolini-Italian Right Wing Dictator Came to power in 1922 Came to power in 1922 Fascisti De Combatamento. (Fascist) Fascisti De Combatamento. (Fascist) Right Wing, anti-Socialist and Communist Right Wing, anti-Socialist and Communist Wanted greatness like the Roman Empire for Italy Wanted greatness like the Roman Empire for Italy Repressive but not too extreme- (no concentration camps) Repressive but not too extreme- (no concentration camps) Nationalist Nationalist Invades Somalia (1935) and Ethiopia in 1936 Invades Somalia (1935) and Ethiopia in 1936

10 Haile Selassie Ethiopian Emperor- Condemned the invasion of his country in the League of Nations Ethiopian Emperor- Condemned the invasion of his country in the League of Nations This was a perfect example of the failure of the League- no way to enforce peace- beyond economic sanctions This was a perfect example of the failure of the League- no way to enforce peace- beyond economic sanctions Haile Selassie is regarded as the Messiah of the African race by followers of the Rastafarian movement. The word ''Rastafarian'' comes from Selassie's pre- coronation name, Ras Tafari. Haile Selassie is regarded as the Messiah of the African race by followers of the Rastafarian movement. The word ''Rastafarian'' comes from Selassie's pre- coronation name, Ras Tafari.

11 Hitler Rises to Power Germany has problems Germany has problems Economic Depression Economic Depression Conflict with Socialist/Communists against Right Wing Groups- Nazis are one group Conflict with Socialist/Communists against Right Wing Groups- Nazis are one group Nazis gain significant power in Reichstag (German legislature) 1933 and Hitler ascends to Chancellor (similar to Prime Minister-executive branch) Nazis gain significant power in Reichstag (German legislature) 1933 and Hitler ascends to Chancellor (similar to Prime Minister-executive branch)

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13 Factors that Contributed to Hitlers Rise Economic depression Economic depression Treaty of Versailles (Peace Treaty Germany and Allies World War I) Treaty of Versailles (Peace Treaty Germany and Allies World War I) Striped Germany of land (East Prussia, Danzig and empire) Striped Germany of land (East Prussia, Danzig and empire) Striped Germany of military, navy, air force Striped Germany of military, navy, air force Allies had a right to intervene (Saar Basin Rhineland, many resources) Allies had a right to intervene (Saar Basin Rhineland, many resources) German had to take explicit blame for the war German had to take explicit blame for the war Pay War Repartitions Pay War Repartitions Socialists/Communists vs Right Wing groups were fighting for control Socialists/Communists vs Right Wing groups were fighting for control Created conditions for popularity of Nazis for some German voters Created conditions for popularity of Nazis for some German voters

14 Hitler and Hindenburg New Chancellor and Old President of Weimar Republic New Chancellor and Old President of Weimar Republic

15 Hitler-Once in Power Hitler vows to make Germany great again Hitler vows to make Germany great again To Claim its rightful place in the Sun. To Claim its rightful place in the Sun. Reichstag fire = Hitler has emergency powers Reichstag fire = Hitler has emergency powers Hitler begins to implement his plan- (found in his book Mein Kampf) Hitler begins to implement his plan- (found in his book Mein Kampf) Rearm Germany Rearm Germany Unite the German people in one country (all German speaking people; 1938 Anschluss- political unity between Austria and Germany, later (Sudetenland) Czechoslovakia and East Prussia (part of Poland) Unite the German people in one country (all German speaking people; 1938 Anschluss- political unity between Austria and Germany, later (Sudetenland) Czechoslovakia and East Prussia (part of Poland) Ethnically Cleanse German Territory (all non-Aryan…Jews, Gypsies) Ethnically Cleanse German Territory (all non-Aryan…Jews, Gypsies) Expand East Lebensraub - into Russian lands, Destroy communists Expand East Lebensraub - into Russian lands, Destroy communists

16 European Appeasement One of the huge lessons of World War II that is brought up again and again is the idea of Appeasement (giving in to demands as an expedient to avoid a conflict or difficult struggle) One of the huge lessons of World War II that is brought up again and again is the idea of Appeasement (giving in to demands as an expedient to avoid a conflict or difficult struggle) The powers of France, Great Britain and others in Europe have been accused of appeasing Hitler when they should have stopped his early demands. The powers of France, Great Britain and others in Europe have been accused of appeasing Hitler when they should have stopped his early demands. The idea is that perhaps Hitler could have been stopped. Before he was too powerful. The idea is that perhaps Hitler could have been stopped. Before he was too powerful. By giving in to Hitlers demands, it encouraged him to push further and brought another Global War By giving in to Hitlers demands, it encouraged him to push further and brought another Global War British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain will always be remembered for his appeasement of Hitler. (Peace in Our Time) Munich Agreement British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain will always be remembered for his appeasement of Hitler. (Peace in Our Time) Munich Agreement

17 Why did the Allies appease Hitler? Treaty of Versailles- Peace was too harsh Treaty of Versailles- Peace was too harsh All consuming desire for peace All consuming desire for peace Rearmament Rearmament Nationalism- create one nation, racial, ethnic homogeneity, with strength and a traditional spiritual location Nationalism- create one nation, racial, ethnic homogeneity, with strength and a traditional spiritual location Anschluss- Anschluss- Chamberlain and Munich= Sudetenland, Chamberlain and Munich= Sudetenland, 1939 Poland and the Polish Corridor-Danzig Poland and the Polish Corridor-Danzig- Nazi-Soviet Non-aggression Pact Nazi-Soviet Non-aggression Pact 1941 Lebensraum and Operation Barbarossa Lebensraum and Operation Barbarossa-

18 Failure of the League of Nations Recall the League of Nations was designed to prevent war Recall the League of Nations was designed to prevent war Problems: US is not part of Problems: US is not part of It did not have an enforcement capability- especially could not use force It did not have an enforcement capability- especially could not use force Only weapon was economic embargo and public pressure Only weapon was economic embargo and public pressure When Japan, then Italy, and later Germany pursue aggression invading other countries (Manchuria, Somalia, Ethiopia, Spanish Civil War, and Czchoslovakia) When Japan, then Italy, and later Germany pursue aggression invading other countries (Manchuria, Somalia, Ethiopia, Spanish Civil War, and Czchoslovakia) The international body will have little or no effect The international body will have little or no effect

19 China Still Weak After WWI China remains weak After WWI China remains weak Open Door Reinforced Open Door Reinforced Nationalists (Kuomintang) Sun-Yat Sen and Chiang Kai-shek- Friendly to United States Fighting over control with Communist forces of Mao Tse Tung Nationalists (Kuomintang) Sun-Yat Sen and Chiang Kai-shek- Friendly to United States Fighting over control with Communist forces of Mao Tse Tung

20 Japan Wanted to expand its empire similar to France, Britain, and the US. Wanted to expand its empire similar to France, Britain, and the US. Want to control Chinas abundant natural resources Want to control Chinas abundant natural resources Japan was angry regarding the Washington Naval Conference (1921- Harding Admin, set limit for Japanese Navy, subordinate position to US and Britain, reinforced the Open Door policy, all nations can trade with China. Japan was angry regarding the Washington Naval Conference (1921- Harding Admin, set limit for Japanese Navy, subordinate position to US and Britain, reinforced the Open Door policy, all nations can trade with China. Japanese nationalists rise in power and asserted that power in Manchuria Japanese nationalists rise in power and asserted that power in Manchuria

21 Japan invades Manchuria 1931 Russo-Japanese War- begins Japanese interest in Manchuria (Rivals of Russians, and economic interests, raw materials) Russo-Japanese War- begins Japanese interest in Manchuria (Rivals of Russians, and economic interests, raw materials) Japanese military asserted rights to Manchuria Japanese military asserted rights to Manchuria Military- incident with Chinese forces is an excuse for full takeover of Manchuria, new name is Manchukuo. Military- incident with Chinese forces is an excuse for full takeover of Manchuria, new name is Manchukuo. Later to further weaken China, Japan will bomb Shanghai- over a boycott of Japanese goods Later to further weaken China, Japan will bomb Shanghai- over a boycott of Japanese goods

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23 Results of Japanese invasion of Manchuria US President was Hoover (1932) US President was Hoover (1932) Hoover responds with the Stimson Doctrine- (Secretary of State under Hoover) refusing to acknowledge results of gains made by aggression- Hoover responds with the Stimson Doctrine- (Secretary of State under Hoover) refusing to acknowledge results of gains made by aggression- US will not recognize territorial changes- US will not recognize territorial changes- League of Nations condemns the attack on China League of Nations condemns the attack on China Japan subsequently withdraws from League of Nations (League is essentially ignored) Japan subsequently withdraws from League of Nations (League is essentially ignored) No country wants war and China will suffer greatly when Japan attacks full scale invasion 1936(caution very graphic see Rape of Nanjing) No country wants war and China will suffer greatly when Japan attacks full scale invasion 1936(caution very graphic see Rape of Nanjing)Rape of NanjingRape of Nanjing 300,000 civilians killed 300,000 civilians killed Japan proclaims new order in Asia, and essentially closes the Open Door Japan proclaims new order in Asia, and essentially closes the Open Door

24 Chinese Fight Chiang Kai-shek resists the Japanese and moves capital to Chunking and even unites with the the Communists- Mao Tse Tung for the duration of the war. Chiang Kai-shek resists the Japanese and moves capital to Chunking and even unites with the the Communists- Mao Tse Tung for the duration of the war.

25 American Neutrality The Neutrality Act of members of congress, wanted to keep America out of war The Neutrality Act of members of congress, wanted to keep America out of war Popular idea, US entered WWI because of bankers and industrialists Popular idea, US entered WWI because of bankers and industrialists Imposed an embargo on warring nations Imposed an embargo on warring nations Forbade American sale of war goods and ships from transporting munitions to belligerent countries Forbade American sale of war goods and ships from transporting munitions to belligerent countries Gave president power to prohibit Americans traveling on belligerent ships Gave president power to prohibit Americans traveling on belligerent ships Neutrality Act forbade loans to belligerent countries Neutrality Act forbade loans to belligerent countries Neutrality Act response to the Spanish Civil War Neutrality Act response to the Spanish Civil War Goods from the US to warring nations had to be paid for in cash (2 years only) Goods from the US to warring nations had to be paid for in cash (2 years only)

26 More Neutrality Many groups in America wanted Isolation Many groups in America wanted Isolation Irish, German- Americans Irish, German- Americans Midwesterners, Anti-Communists, Anti- Semites, liberals who wanted continue reform, and pacifists Midwesterners, Anti-Communists, Anti- Semites, liberals who wanted continue reform, and pacifists Ludlow Amendment- Isolationist support was so great that- an amendment to Constitution was proposed, that only in case of attack or invasion could US declare war. (not approved) Ludlow Amendment- Isolationist support was so great that- an amendment to Constitution was proposed, that only in case of attack or invasion could US declare war. (not approved)

27 Quarantine Speech 1937 FDR 1937 FDR 1937 FDR 1937 FDR The Quarantine Speech FDR on 1937 calling for an international "quarantine of the aggressor nations" as an alternative to the political climate of American neutrality and isolationism that was prevalent at the time. The Quarantine Speech FDR on 1937 calling for an international "quarantine of the aggressor nations" as an alternative to the political climate of American neutrality and isolationism that was prevalent at the time. The speech intensified America's isolationist mood, causing protest by isolationists and foes to intervention. The speech intensified America's isolationist mood, causing protest by isolationists and foes to intervention. The speech was a response to aggressive actions by Italy and Japan, and suggested the use of economic pressure, a forceful response, but less direct than outright aggression. The speech was a response to aggressive actions by Italy and Japan, and suggested the use of economic pressure, a forceful response, but less direct than outright aggression.

28 FDR Tries to Aide Chinese Flying Tigers Flying Tigers American Volunteers American Volunteers Fighting for Chinese Fighting for Chinese Read More on the Web Read More on the Web Read More on the Web Read More on the Web

29 Spanish Civil War Loyalists-Democratically elected Socialists are attacked by Francisco Franco- Loyalists-Democratically elected Socialists are attacked by Francisco Franco- Insurgents- Generalissimo Francisco Franco- Nazis and Italian Fascists support with 50,000 troops, planes, and tanks. Insurgents- Generalissimo Francisco Franco- Nazis and Italian Fascists support with 50,000 troops, planes, and tanks. Loyalists are supported by Soviet Union and International Brigades (Foreign volunteers- For Whom the Bell Tolls) Loyalists are supported by Soviet Union and International Brigades (Foreign volunteers- For Whom the Bell Tolls) American Neutrality Acts – hurt the loyalist cause- Americans will not help the Spanish Gov. American Neutrality Acts – hurt the loyalist cause- Americans will not help the Spanish Gov. FDR wanted to help but was hampered by isolationist law makers FDR wanted to help but was hampered by isolationist law makers

30 Picassos painting of German bombing of ancient city of Gurenica, during Span Civ War-

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32 German-Soviet Non Aggression Pact August 23, Hitler and Stalin sign a secret agreement to partition Poland- August 23, Hitler and Stalin sign a secret agreement to partition Poland- Germans invade Poland in the West Germans invade Poland in the West Russians invade Poland in the East Russians invade Poland in the East World War II in Europe begins- France and Britain had guaranteed Polish sovereignty World War II in Europe begins- France and Britain had guaranteed Polish sovereignty US responds with a renewed Neutrality act cash and carry US responds with a renewed Neutrality act cash and carry

33 Non-Aggression Pact

34 Non Aggression Pact Germans and Soviets share Poland-1939

35 The Phony War Refers to the period between Polands Surrender and the attack on France and Britain. Refers to the period between Polands Surrender and the attack on France and Britain. September 1939-April 1940 September 1939-April 1940 Germany rapidly beat Poland Blitzkrieg Germany rapidly beat Poland Blitzkrieg France and Britain mobilized and waited for attack France and Britain mobilized and waited for attack April 1940 Denmark, Norway, April 1940 Denmark, Norway, May 1940 Belgium and France May 1940 Belgium and France Dunkirk- 300,000 British troops escape the continent- Churchill now in charge Dunkirk- 300,000 British troops escape the continent- Churchill now in charge Paris Falls June 1940 Paris Falls June 1940 England stands alone Battle of Britain England stands alone Battle of Britain

36 Battle of Britain Brits were alone as of June 1940 Brits were alone as of June 1940 Winston Churchill, the new prime minister summed up the British attitude: Winston Churchill, the new prime minister summed up the British attitude: We shall not flag or fail. We shall go on to the end. We shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and the oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be. We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills ; we shall never surrender. We shall not flag or fail. We shall go on to the end. We shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and the oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be. We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills ; we shall never surrender.

37 What will …in God's good time, the New World, with all its power and might, steps forth to the rescue and the liberation of the old." …in God's good time, the New World, with all its power and might, steps forth to the rescue and the liberation of the old."

38 United States Reacts to War Debate 1940: Isolationist or Internationalist Isolationists Isolationists America First Committee America First Committee Charles A Lindberg Charles A Lindberg Intervention is detrimental to American interests Intervention is detrimental to American interests Internationalists Committee to Defend America Best way to keep US out of war is to Help allies fight the Germans Roosevelt is sympathetic Defend America by Aiding the Allies

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41 FDR Calls for Preparedness May 1940 FDR calls Congress to create an air force of 50,000 planes May 1940 FDR calls Congress to create an air force of 50,000 planes And capacity to produce 50,000 planes per year And capacity to produce 50,000 planes per year By June 1940 $3 Billion was appropriated for defense By June 1940 $3 Billion was appropriated for defense By October 1940, $17 Billion was appropriated for defense including Navy By October 1940, $17 Billion was appropriated for defense including Navy

42 FDR Aids the Allies Summer 1940 FDR asks congress to allow trade of 50 destroyers in exchange for 99 year leases for bases in the Atlantic Summer 1940 FDR asks congress to allow trade of 50 destroyers in exchange for 99 year leases for bases in the Atlantic Although population does not want to enter the war, 73% support aid to Britain. Although population does not want to enter the war, 73% support aid to Britain.

43 1941 Lend Lease 1941 Lend Lease: 1941 Lend Lease: Program to offer aid to Brits Program to offer aid to Brits FDR in a Fireside Chat If a neighbors home were on fire… FDR in a Fireside Chat If a neighbors home were on fire… lease, lend or otherwise dispose of any items not vital to the nations defense. lease, lend or otherwise dispose of any items not vital to the nations defense. US is closer to the War- (US Ships secretly were supporting the British Navy by searching and reporting on U-boat locations) US is closer to the War- (US Ships secretly were supporting the British Navy by searching and reporting on U-boat locations) Hitler afraid to attack American Ships Hitler afraid to attack American Ships

44 Atlantic Charter AUGUST 14, 1941 The President of the United States of America and the Prime Minister, Mr. Churchill, representing His Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom, being met together, deem it right to make known certain common principles in the national policies of their respective countries on which they base their hopes for a better future for the world. The President of the United States of America and the Prime Minister, Mr. Churchill, representing His Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom, being met together, deem it right to make known certain common principles in the national policies of their respective countries on which they base their hopes for a better future for the world. First, their countries seek no aggrandizement, territorial or other; First, their countries seek no aggrandizement, territorial or other; Second, they desire to see no territorial changes that do not accord with the freely expressed wishes of the peoples concerned; Second, they desire to see no territorial changes that do not accord with the freely expressed wishes of the peoples concerned; Third, they respect the right of all peoples to choose the form of government under which they will live; and they wish to see sovereign rights and self government restored to those who have been forcibly deprived of them; Third, they respect the right of all peoples to choose the form of government under which they will live; and they wish to see sovereign rights and self government restored to those who have been forcibly deprived of them; Fourth, they will endeavor, with due respect for their existing obligations, to further the enjoyment by all States, great or small, victor or vanquished, of access, on equal terms, to the trade and to the raw materials of the world which are needed for their economic prosperity; Fourth, they will endeavor, with due respect for their existing obligations, to further the enjoyment by all States, great or small, victor or vanquished, of access, on equal terms, to the trade and to the raw materials of the world which are needed for their economic prosperity; Fifth, they desire to bring about the fullest collaboration between all nations in the economic field with the object of securing, for all, improved labor standards, economic advancement and social security; Fifth, they desire to bring about the fullest collaboration between all nations in the economic field with the object of securing, for all, improved labor standards, economic advancement and social security; Sixth, after the final destruction of the Nazi tyranny, they hope to see established a peace which will afford to all nations the means of dwelling in safety within their own boundaries, and which will afford assurance that all the men in all lands may live out their lives in freedom from fear and want; Sixth, after the final destruction of the Nazi tyranny, they hope to see established a peace which will afford to all nations the means of dwelling in safety within their own boundaries, and which will afford assurance that all the men in all lands may live out their lives in freedom from fear and want; Seventh, such a peace should enable all men to traverse the high seas and oceans without hindrance; Seventh, such a peace should enable all men to traverse the high seas and oceans without hindrance; Eighth, they believe that all of the nations of the world, for realistic as well as spiritual reasons must come to the abandonment of the use of force. Since no future peace can be maintained if land, sea or air armaments continue to be employed by nations which threaten, or may threaten, aggression outside of their frontiers, they believe, pending the establishment of a wider and permanent system of general security, that the disarmament of such nations is essential. They will likewise aid and encourage all other practicable measure which will lighten for peace-loving peoples the crushing burden of armaments. Eighth, they believe that all of the nations of the world, for realistic as well as spiritual reasons must come to the abandonment of the use of force. Since no future peace can be maintained if land, sea or air armaments continue to be employed by nations which threaten, or may threaten, aggression outside of their frontiers, they believe, pending the establishment of a wider and permanent system of general security, that the disarmament of such nations is essential. They will likewise aid and encourage all other practicable measure which will lighten for peace-loving peoples the crushing burden of armaments.

45 Meeting Before the War Before US enters War: August, 1941 Newfoundland Before US enters War: August, 1941 Newfoundland Secret, FDR and Churchill meet to coordinate Secret, FDR and Churchill meet to coordinate Create the Atlantic Charter (a statement of principles agreed upon) Create the Atlantic Charter (a statement of principles agreed upon) Condemned Aggression Condemned Aggression Endorsed National Self Determination Endorsed National Self Determination Self Government as a universal right Self Government as a universal right Collective Security Collective Security Opposed forced, undemocratic territorial changes Opposed forced, undemocratic territorial changes Significance: Became a great statement of Anglo- American Ideals and a precursor to the Post War ideals of the United Nations

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47 Selective Service Act Sept TIME TIME (September 23, 1940) (September 23, 1940) Last week Congress passed the conscription bill. This week the President signed it. A new thing had entered U.S. life: although the U.S. had conscripted its citizens in two wars, never before had it conscripted them in peace. Some 16, men, aged 21 to 36, forthwith became liable to compulsory military service. How, when, whether conscription would actually touch them was prescribed in 1) the bill, and 2) the selective system which the Army & Navy had long since prepared against a martial day. Last week Congress passed the conscription bill. This week the President signed it. A new thing had entered U.S. life: although the U.S. had conscripted its citizens in two wars, never before had it conscripted them in peace. Some 16, men, aged 21 to 36, forthwith became liable to compulsory military service. How, when, whether conscription would actually touch them was prescribed in 1) the bill, and 2) the selective system which the Army & Navy had long since prepared against a martial day. The Bill laid down the general philosophy, rules, scope of conscription: The Bill laid down the general philosophy, rules, scope of conscription: No more than 900,000 conscripts can be called in any one year (the Army plans to call 800,000 a year). They will be kept in training for one year, will then enter an enlisted reserve where they will be subject to recall for emergency service for ten years or until they are 45. They will not be subject to periodic recalls for further training. But if Congress finds the nation in peril before their initial year's service ends, they can be held under arms indefinitely. No more than 900,000 conscripts can be called in any one year (the Army plans to call 800,000 a year). They will be kept in training for one year, will then enter an enlisted reserve where they will be subject to recall for emergency service for ten years or until they are 45. They will not be subject to periodic recalls for further training. But if Congress finds the nation in peril before their initial year's service ends, they can be held under arms indefinitely.

48 Election of 1940 then the Draft FDR decides to Run for a third term FDR decides to Run for a third term The Nation Needs emergency situation: The Nation Needs emergency situation: War in Europe War in Europe Problems in Asia Problems in Asia Wants to protect New Deal reforms Wants to protect New Deal reforms Ran against Wendell Willkie Ran against Wendell Willkie FDR Wins- then begins the process FDR Wins- then begins the process Prepare for War: Prepare for War: Draft Draft Armament build up Armament build up

49 FDR Wins Unprecedented 3 rd Term

50 Roosevelts Four Freedoms Speech January 1941 To congress, State of the Union, focus on war preparedness To congress, State of the Union, focus on war preparedness …the future of all the American Republics is today in serious danger. …the future of all the American Republics is today in serious danger. That is why this Annual Message to the Congress is unique in our history. That is why this Annual Message to the Congress is unique in our history. The need of the moment is that our actions and our policy should be devoted primarily-almost exclusively--to meeting this foreign peril. For all our domestic problems are now a part of the great emergency. The need of the moment is that our actions and our policy should be devoted primarily-almost exclusively--to meeting this foreign peril. For all our domestic problems are now a part of the great emergency. Just as our national policy in internal affairs has been based upon a decent respect for the rights and the dignity of all our fellow men within our gates, so our national policy in foreign affairs has been based on a decent respect for the rights and dignity of all nations, large and small. And the justice of morality must and will win in the end. Just as our national policy in internal affairs has been based upon a decent respect for the rights and the dignity of all our fellow men within our gates, so our national policy in foreign affairs has been based on a decent respect for the rights and dignity of all nations, large and small. And the justice of morality must and will win in the end.

51 Four Freedoms Continued The first is freedom of speech and expression--everywhere in the world. The first is freedom of speech and expression--everywhere in the world. The second is freedom of every person to worship God in his own way--everywhere in the world. The second is freedom of every person to worship God in his own way--everywhere in the world. The third is freedom from want--which, translated into world terms, means economic understandings which will secure to every nation a healthy peacetime life for its inhabitants- everywhere in the world. The third is freedom from want--which, translated into world terms, means economic understandings which will secure to every nation a healthy peacetime life for its inhabitants- everywhere in the world. The fourth is freedom from fear--which, translated into world terms, means a world-wide reduction of armaments to such a point and in such a thorough fashion that no nation will be in a position to commit an act of physical aggression against any neighbor--anywhere in the world. The fourth is freedom from fear--which, translated into world terms, means a world-wide reduction of armaments to such a point and in such a thorough fashion that no nation will be in a position to commit an act of physical aggression against any neighbor--anywhere in the world.

52 Significance of Four Freedoms Speech Represents FDRs view that America needs to prepare for war and support Britain. Represents FDRs view that America needs to prepare for war and support Britain. FDR Prepares for War FDR Prepares for War Increased Military appropriations Increased Military appropriations Aliens are fingerprinted Aliens are fingerprinted Peace time draft to raise 2 million troops Peace time draft to raise 2 million troops

53 October 1941 North Atlantic FDR was determined to continue to support England with Lend Lease material FDR was determined to continue to support England with Lend Lease material Extended an American defense zone around Iceland Extended an American defense zone around Iceland Authorized Navy Destroyers to escort British merchant ships, and shoot U-Boats on sight Authorized Navy Destroyers to escort British merchant ships, and shoot U-Boats on sight Greer and Reuben James Incidents cause the US Congress repeal last Neutrality Acts- Greer and Reuben James Incidents cause the US Congress repeal last Neutrality Acts- Allowed arming of merchant ships Allowed arming of merchant ships Transport of goods through war zones Transport of goods through war zones Navy Escorts allowed (FDR- was hoping for an incident) Navy Escorts allowed (FDR- was hoping for an incident)

54 Why did the Japanese Bomb Pearl Harbor? Japanese wanted to expand their empire into China. China had abundant natural resources that would benefit the Japanese desire to build industry. In early 1930s Japan began aggression in Manchuria (Manchckou) and later in 1937 began a full invasion of the Chinese mainland. Japanese wanted to expand their empire into China. China had abundant natural resources that would benefit the Japanese desire to build industry. In early 1930s Japan began aggression in Manchuria (Manchckou) and later in 1937 began a full invasion of the Chinese mainland. The United States response was at first mild, Hoover-Stimson Doctrine. As Japan began the invasion of mainland China the US policy began to change to one of more active complaints and pressure on Japan in the form of economic embargo. At first the embargo only addressed limited goods like scrap metals, later oil was being added, all in an effort to dissuade the Japanese from further aggression in China. The United States response was at first mild, Hoover-Stimson Doctrine. As Japan began the invasion of mainland China the US policy began to change to one of more active complaints and pressure on Japan in the form of economic embargo. At first the embargo only addressed limited goods like scrap metals, later oil was being added, all in an effort to dissuade the Japanese from further aggression in China. Japan knew that war was probable so they made a plan to destroy the American Navy at Pearl Harbor and invade the natural resource rich area of South East Asia, including: Malaysia, Indonesia (lots of oil), Philippines, and Indochina (lots of rubber, tin) Japan knew that war was probable so they made a plan to destroy the American Navy at Pearl Harbor and invade the natural resource rich area of South East Asia, including: Malaysia, Indonesia (lots of oil), Philippines, and Indochina (lots of rubber, tin)

55 Pearl Harbor American Reaction to Pearl Harbor American reaction to Pearl Harbor was swift and violent. American Reaction to Pearl Harbor American reaction to Pearl Harbor was swift and violent. Immediate calls for war and revenge were heard throughout the country. Immediate calls for war and revenge were heard throughout the country. Congress declared war and thousands of soldiers volunteered to fight. Congress declared war and thousands of soldiers volunteered to fight. Americans were mad and they would never forget the treachery of the Japanese. Americans were mad and they would never forget the treachery of the Japanese.

56 Big Questions: Winning the War To what extent was the (industrial) mobilization for war a key factor in the American victory? To what extent was the (industrial) mobilization for war a key factor in the American victory? How is the American home front and mobilization in WWI similar to the home front and mobilization in WWII and how are they different? How is the American home front and mobilization in WWI similar to the home front and mobilization in WWII and how are they different?

57 Basics of WWII 1.The Home Front During the War Wartime mobilization of the economy Wartime mobilization of the economy Urban migration and demographic changes Urban migration and demographic changes Women, work, and family during the war Women, work, and family during the war Civil liberties and civil rights during wartime Civil liberties and civil rights during wartime War and regional development War and regional development Expansion of government power Expansion of government power Fighting a multi-front war Fighting a multi-front war Diplomacy, war aims, and wartime conferences Diplomacy, war aims, and wartime conferences The United States as a global power in the Atomic Age The United States as a global power in the Atomic Age

58 Be able to summarize the following American response to Pearl Harbor American response to Pearl Harbor Arsenal of Democracy Arsenal of Democracy Financing the war Financing the war Size of government Size of government Internment of Japanese Americans Internment of Japanese Americans

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60 A date that will live in InfamyA date that will live in Infamy A date that will live in Infamy President Franklin D. Roosevelt: Yesterday, December 7, 1941a date which will live in infamythe United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan. President Franklin D. Roosevelt: Yesterday, December 7, 1941a date which will live in infamythe United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan. The United States was at peace with that nation, and, at the solicitation of Japan, was still in conversation with its government and its emperor looking toward the maintenance of peace in the Pacific. Indeed, one hour after Japanese air squadrons had commenced bombing in the American island of Oahu, the Japanese ambassador to the United States and his colleague delivered to our secretary of state a formal reply to a recent American message. While this reply stated that it seemed useless to continue the existing diplomatic negotiations, it contained no threat or hint of war or armed attack. The United States was at peace with that nation, and, at the solicitation of Japan, was still in conversation with its government and its emperor looking toward the maintenance of peace in the Pacific. Indeed, one hour after Japanese air squadrons had commenced bombing in the American island of Oahu, the Japanese ambassador to the United States and his colleague delivered to our secretary of state a formal reply to a recent American message. While this reply stated that it seemed useless to continue the existing diplomatic negotiations, it contained no threat or hint of war or armed attack. It will be recorded that the distance of Hawaii from Japan makes it obvious that the attack was deliberately planned many days or even weeks ago. During the intervening time the Japanese government has deliberately sought to deceive the United States by false statements and expressions of hope for continued peace. It will be recorded that the distance of Hawaii from Japan makes it obvious that the attack was deliberately planned many days or even weeks ago. During the intervening time the Japanese government has deliberately sought to deceive the United States by false statements and expressions of hope for continued peace.

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63 Jay Noreski: Yes sir. My name is Noreski. Jay Noreski. Im a World War veteran and 18. The last time I went to fought for democracy. They told me to fight for democracy. And I went over. I volunteered. But next time, Im going to fight. Theres hate in my heart. Whats in me, whats in my veins. Im gonna kill, slaughter those Nazi ones if I come across a wounded one, wouldnt interest me. Id kill my own father if he dared fight against this country. Im an American, not by birth, but by choice. And Im mighty damn proud of it. What are you going to do in this county to chase every damn skunkGerman, Russian, Japanese, where they come fromand never bring them back in this country. If I hadI wish I was the President for about one year, I wouldthered be not a goddamn skunk left here in this country. And Im gonna tell you something elseUnited States never lost a war yet and never gonna lose it because five guys, we might [inaudible] about our presidents, about our Congressmen, about ourwhat do you call it? in charge of a state? Jay Noreski: Yes sir. My name is Noreski. Jay Noreski. Im a World War veteran and 18. The last time I went to fought for democracy. They told me to fight for democracy. And I went over. I volunteered. But next time, Im going to fight. Theres hate in my heart. Whats in me, whats in my veins. Im gonna kill, slaughter those Nazi ones if I come across a wounded one, wouldnt interest me. Id kill my own father if he dared fight against this country. Im an American, not by birth, but by choice. And Im mighty damn proud of it. What are you going to do in this county to chase every damn skunkGerman, Russian, Japanese, where they come fromand never bring them back in this country. If I hadI wish I was the President for about one year, I wouldthered be not a goddamn skunk left here in this country. And Im gonna tell you something elseUnited States never lost a war yet and never gonna lose it because five guys, we might [inaudible] about our presidents, about our Congressmen, about ourwhat do you call it? in charge of a state?

64 Andrew Smith: My names Andrew Smith. And I tell you, what I feel about the war, theyve been talking war long enough. And theyve been talking long time that we should have been in it. Way I feel about itif itd been up to me wed a been fighting a year ago. When Hitler first started theyd been fighting, see, they would have stopped him before he got as far as they are. Theyd have stopped him, in fact, thats what I think this ones gonna come up to be to stop him. And thats the good thing that this really started, I think. As far as Japans concerned, why its just like he just said, its a stab in the back. They started something that nobody else, nobody gonna start, you know, and the man was supposed to be here, supposed tove been talking peace to our President, and they starting war over there. Well, I dont think it was justice. No justice there. Negro people would do their very best if they had a chance to do what they can, that they would do their very best to do what they can. See? But, if they have a chance to do it. All they want is a chance. Because if they dont get a chance, thats the only reason they dont do it because they really dont get a chance. See? But if they get a chance, why I really think they would do their very best, especially if they all feel like I feel. Andrew Smith: My names Andrew Smith. And I tell you, what I feel about the war, theyve been talking war long enough. And theyve been talking long time that we should have been in it. Way I feel about itif itd been up to me wed a been fighting a year ago. When Hitler first started theyd been fighting, see, they would have stopped him before he got as far as they are. Theyd have stopped him, in fact, thats what I think this ones gonna come up to be to stop him. And thats the good thing that this really started, I think. As far as Japans concerned, why its just like he just said, its a stab in the back. They started something that nobody else, nobody gonna start, you know, and the man was supposed to be here, supposed tove been talking peace to our President, and they starting war over there. Well, I dont think it was justice. No justice there. Negro people would do their very best if they had a chance to do what they can, that they would do their very best to do what they can. See? But, if they have a chance to do it. All they want is a chance. Because if they dont get a chance, thats the only reason they dont do it because they really dont get a chance. See? But if they get a chance, why I really think they would do their very best, especially if they all feel like I feel.

65 Key Ideas: Americas Response to Pearl Harbor and War US had started to prepare 1940 US had started to prepare 1940 Airplane production/design Airplane production/design Draft/Selective Service-1940 Draft/Selective Service-1940 Build the Arsenal of Democracy-Harness the Industrial and Economic power of the US- and focus it toward War. Build the Arsenal of Democracy-Harness the Industrial and Economic power of the US- and focus it toward War. Focus on building War material- Specifically Air power, Bombers, B17, B24, B29 Focus on building War material- Specifically Air power, Bombers, B17, B24, B29 Germany was the biggest threat, Focus of first phase of War Germany was the biggest threat, Focus of first phase of War Then Japan Then Japan

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67 Japan Offensive Hitler and Mussolini both declared war on the United States as a sign of support for the Japanese. Hitler and Mussolini both declared war on the United States as a sign of support for the Japanese. Japan Attacks Polynesian Asia Immediately following the attack on Pearl Harbor Japanese forces began a systematic invasion of the Pacific. Malaysia, Singapore, Burma, French Indochina, and the Philippines were overrun. American forces in the Philippines were outnumbered and overwhelmed by Japanese forces. Japan Attacks Polynesian Asia Immediately following the attack on Pearl Harbor Japanese forces began a systematic invasion of the Pacific. Malaysia, Singapore, Burma, French Indochina, and the Philippines were overrun. American forces in the Philippines were outnumbered and overwhelmed by Japanese forces. 12,000 American prisoners were taken in the fall of the last Philippine strong hold called Bataan. 12,000 American prisoners were taken in the fall of the last Philippine strong hold called Bataan. Bataan Death March Bataan Death March

68 Philippines Fall to Japanese link link April 9, U.S. forces on Bata-an surrender unconditionally to the Japanese. Link another link April 9, U.S. forces on Bata-an surrender unconditionally to the Japanese. Link another link Linklink Linklink

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70 How does America respond to Pearl Harbor? Reading focus question: Reading focus question: How does the war impact American society? How does the war impact American society? Use specific examples from reading Use specific examples from reading

71 American Arsenal of Democracy America Mobilizes for War= (WPB) America Mobilizes for War= (WPB) War Production Board- goal is to transform industrial production to War production, organize all industrial output War Production Board- goal is to transform industrial production to War production, organize all industrial output Board had much power to control resources: Board had much power to control resources: Limited civilian goods- Rationing of food, fuel… Limited civilian goods- Rationing of food, fuel… Automobile production stopped Automobile production stopped Conservation and recycle movement, rubber, metal, grease, Conservation and recycle movement, rubber, metal, grease,

72 Arsenal of Democracy $320 Billion government spending $320 Billion government spending Huge amount was 6 times that of Roosevelts first two terms. Huge amount was 6 times that of Roosevelts first two terms.

73 Financing the War Taxes increase Taxes increase Income Income 1941: 7 million people file taxes 1941: 7 million people file taxes 1944: 42 million people file taxes 1944: 42 million people file taxes Government starts withholding $ from workers Government starts withholding $ from workers Loans/War Bonds Loans/War Bonds $100 billion in bonds sold $100 billion in bonds sold

74 Problem of Inflation Prices rise with full inflation Prices rise with full inflation Full employment: GDP Doubles to $211.9 billion Full employment: GDP Doubles to $211.9 billion Office of Price Administration is created to manage prices Office of Price Administration is created to manage prices Freezes prices Freezes prices Rations- Gas, tires, meat, sugar, shoes, coffee, canned goods (Ration books-needed coupons to purchase goods) Rations- Gas, tires, meat, sugar, shoes, coffee, canned goods (Ration books-needed coupons to purchase goods)

75 The Size of Government Explodes Hundreds of agencies created: Hundreds of agencies created: National War Labor Boards- to manage labor practices and prevent strikes National War Labor Boards- to manage labor practices and prevent strikes Office of War Mobilization- to help coordinate agencies Office of War Mobilization- to help coordinate agencies Local Draft Boards Local Draft Boards

76 Internment of Japanese Americans Japanese immigrants had increased in the United States since the early 1900s (See Gentlemen's Agreement- TRoosevelt 1907) Japanese immigrants had increased in the United States since the early 1900s (See Gentlemen's Agreement- TRoosevelt 1907)Gentlemen's Agreement- Gentlemen's Agreement- Issei-Japanese immigrants, born in Japan Issei-Japanese immigrants, born in Japan Nisei- US citizens- children of Japanese immigrants Nisei- US citizens- children of Japanese immigrants When Japan bombed Pearl Harbor a great backlash was directed at Japanese Americans When Japan bombed Pearl Harbor a great backlash was directed at Japanese Americans February 1942 FDR signed an Executive Order 9066 February 1942 FDR signed an Executive Order 9066 Remove any and all persons who might pose a threat to national security. Remove any and all persons who might pose a threat to national security. March 18, War Relocation Authority established in the U.S. which eventually will round up 120,000 Japanese-Americans and transport them to barb-wired relocation centers. March 18, War Relocation Authority established in the U.S. which eventually will round up 120,000 Japanese-Americans and transport them to barb-wired relocation centers. Farwell to Manzanar: Book about Japanese Internment Farwell to Manzanar: Book about Japanese Internment

77 Japanese Relocation Were accused of potentially aiding Japanese espionage Were accused of potentially aiding Japanese espionage Racist attitudes greed were also factors some people wanted the opportunity to take Japanese land Racist attitudes greed were also factors some people wanted the opportunity to take Japanese land

78 Japanese Internment Camps Japanese were relocated in Camps: Japanese were relocated in Camps: Some Japanese sued for their rights: Some Japanese sued for their rights: Korematus v. the United States Korematus v. the United States Supreme Court upheld the Supreme Court upheld the Internment of the Japanese Internment of the Japanese

79 Japanese internment In the entire course of the war, 10 people were convicted of spying for Japan, all of whom were Caucasian. In the entire course of the war, 10 people were convicted of spying for Japan, all of whom were Caucasian. Roosevelt interned 120,000 Japanese Roosevelt interned 120,000 Japanese 2/3 were American citizens and had never shown disloyalty 2/3 were American citizens and had never shown disloyalty

80 Japanese American Heroes 33,000 Japanese Americans served 33,000 Japanese Americans served Japanese-Americans sign up and fight for the U.S. in Europe, including the 442nd Regimental Combat Team, the most decorated unit in U.S. history. Japanese-Americans sign up and fight for the U.S. in Europe, including the 442nd Regimental Combat Team, the most decorated unit in U.S. history.

81 African Americans and the War A. Phillip Randolph- African American Leader A. Phillip Randolph- African American Leader Wanted more Civil Rights for African Americans Wanted more Civil Rights for African Americans End of segregation in War Industries, Presidential Executive Order 8802 End of segregation in War Industries, Presidential Executive Order 8802 Segregation in Military continued Segregation in Military continued

82 Women and the War Rosie the Riveter: Rosie the Riveter: Women go to work in munitions factories, other jobs, and the military Women go to work in munitions factories, other jobs, and the military

83 War in Europe Allies agreed that Europe was first priority Allies agreed that Europe was first priority November 1942 North Africa 1942 Bombing campaign against Germany begun November 1942 North Africa 1942 Bombing campaign against Germany begun July 1942 Battle of Stalingrad begins-ends January 1943 turning point in the war.- Germany is doomed July 1942 Battle of Stalingrad begins-ends January 1943 turning point in the war.- Germany is doomed Sicily Sicily- September 1943 Italy Surrenders (German Army occupies and holds Northern Italy) September 1943 Italy Surrenders (German Army occupies and holds Northern Italy) 1944 Rome Falls 1944 Rome Falls June 6, 1944 D-Day- Allied Invasion of Normandy France, the Second Front is opened. June 6, 1944 D-Day- Allied Invasion of Normandy France, the Second Front is opened. December 16, 1944 Battle of the Bulge (German counter attack in the Ardennes Forrest, 200K Germans attack Allies) December 16, 1944 Battle of the Bulge (German counter attack in the Ardennes Forrest, 200K Germans attack Allies) May 8, 1945 Germany Surrenders (Hitler is dead, Russians conquer Berlin) V-E Day May 8, 1945 Germany Surrenders (Hitler is dead, Russians conquer Berlin) V-E Day

84 Air Power is a Key Strategy

85 Eisenhower Supreme Allied Commander WWII Supreme Allied Commander WWII Dwight David Eisenhower Dwight David Eisenhower

86 War in the Pacific Strategy of Island Hopping: bypass some islands controlled by Japanese and attack specific islands, to obtain air bases in an effort to bomb Japan more efficiently and to build up forces in an effort to invade Japan. Strategy of Island Hopping: bypass some islands controlled by Japanese and attack specific islands, to obtain air bases in an effort to bomb Japan more efficiently and to build up forces in an effort to invade Japan. Timeline of WWII (everything you wanted to know and more) Timeline of WWII (everything you wanted to know and more) Timeline of WWII Timeline of WWII March 11, Gen. MacArthur leaves Philippines and is flown to Australia. March 11, Gen. MacArthur leaves Philippines and is flown to Australia. April 9, 1942 US Troops surrender Philippines April 9, 1942 US Troops surrender Philippines June 4-5, 1942 Major victory at Midway Island US takes out Japanese aircraft carriers Link to Midway ENTERPRISE, HORNET, and YORKTOWN attack June 4-5, 1942 Major victory at Midway Island US takes out Japanese aircraft carriers Link to Midway ENTERPRISE, HORNET, and YORKTOWN attackLink to MidwayLink to Midway August 7, 1942 – First US Attack Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands. February 19, U.S. Marines invade Iwo Jima. July 5, 1945 Americans retake the Philippines April 1, Okinawa. August 6, First Atomic Bomb dropped on Hiroshima from a B-29 flown by Col. Paul Tibbets Little Boy. August 9, Second Atomic Bomb is dropped on Nagasaki Fat Man VJ Day- August 15, 1945 Japanese Surrender

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88 Iwo Jima

89 Okinawa April April K army plus 20K militia Japanese defenders 77K army plus 20K militia Japanese defenders Would not surrender Would not surrender Buying time for home island fortification Buying time for home island fortification Kamikaze attacks- 300 planes at a time Kamikaze attacks- 300 planes at a time Killed 4,900 sailors, wounded 4,824, Killed 4,900 sailors, wounded 4,824, Sank 36 ships and damaged 368 more Sank 36 ships and damaged 368 more Japanese would not surrender Mass suicides with grenades and cyanide 50K Americans invade Island is pacified in by June ,000 Japanese survive 7K Americans killed, 31,800 wounded 35%.

90 Atomic Bomb Production FDR authorized a secret program code namedManhattan Project FDR authorized a secret program code namedManhattan ProjectManhattan ProjectManhattan Project 1943, J. Robert Oppenheimer, led the team of physicists to develop and atomic weapon, to split the atom 1943, J. Robert Oppenheimer, led the team of physicists to develop and atomic weapon, to split the atom Los Alamos, New Mexico Los Alamos, New Mexico July 1945, the bomb was ready (Truman had no idea any bomb like this was being worked on, when he took office) Trinity July 1945, the bomb was ready (Truman had no idea any bomb like this was being worked on, when he took office) Trinity

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92 Why did Truman Decide to Drop 2 bombs on Japan? Every man in these fortifications will follow his superior officers order and fight to the end for the sake of the motherland…Do not suffer the shame of being taken prisoner. Every man in these fortifications will follow his superior officers order and fight to the end for the sake of the motherland…Do not suffer the shame of being taken prisoner. Last words of commander at Okinawa Last words of commander at Okinawa Japanese had 2 million men under arms and 4 million in reserve in the home islands Japanese had 2 million men under arms and 4 million in reserve in the home islands 5000 Kamikaze waiting 5000 Kamikaze waiting The experience of Okinawa and Iwo Jima Revealed the US casualties to invade Japan would number in the hundreds of thousands- With an invasion force of 700K When the Atomic bomb was ready it was seen as the only solution to saving American lives. The Japanese would not surrender.

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94 Atomic Bombing Web Site Web SiteWeb Site Hiroshima Hiroshima August 6, 1945 August 6, 1945 The Enola Gay The Enola Gay Captain Paul Tibbetts Captain Paul Tibbetts Dropped Little Boy Dropped Little Boy Nagasaki August 9, 1945 Fat Man Japanese finally surrender VJ Day- August 15, 1945

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99 Propaganda Did the US engage in propaganda during this war? Did the US engage in propaganda during this war? How and who was involved? How and who was involved? Can you cite some examples? Can you cite some examples?

100 Wartime Conferences FDR (and later Truman) will coordinate the effort with Allied leaders Churchill, and later Stalin FDR (and later Truman) will coordinate the effort with Allied leaders Churchill, and later Stalin Casablanca-1943 FDR, Churchill, agreed on war aims: Sicily invasion, Unconditional Surrender- of Japan and Germany Casablanca-1943 FDR, Churchill, agreed on war aims: Sicily invasion, Unconditional Surrender- of Japan and Germany Cairo FDR and Churchill, Chiang Kai-shek- discussed war aims in Asia, Japan will lose all islands acquired, Korea independent Cairo FDR and Churchill, Chiang Kai-shek- discussed war aims in Asia, Japan will lose all islands acquired, Korea independent Teheran-1943 The Big Three discussed 2 nd front in Europe (France), Postwar Germany, Teheran-1943 The Big Three discussed 2 nd front in Europe (France), Postwar Germany, Yalta-February 1945 Big Three Discussed the fate of Poland, Stalin asserted need for Buffer Zone and sphere of influence; Stalin promised to allow free elections; planned for the division of Germany after the war; Stalin promised to declare war on Japan in exchange for Japanese land/Kurile Islands; (FDR is dying and will be criticized for being manipulated by Stalin and selling out Eastern Europe to the Russians. Yalta-February 1945 Big Three Discussed the fate of Poland, Stalin asserted need for Buffer Zone and sphere of influence; Stalin promised to allow free elections; planned for the division of Germany after the war; Stalin promised to declare war on Japan in exchange for Japanese land/Kurile Islands; (FDR is dying and will be criticized for being manipulated by Stalin and selling out Eastern Europe to the Russians. Potsdam- Germany, July 1945, FDR dead, Truman, Churchill gone, new Brit- Clement Atlee, Stalin- discussed boundaries for Germany, German resources would pay for the war, Potsdam- Germany, July 1945, FDR dead, Truman, Churchill gone, new Brit- Clement Atlee, Stalin- discussed boundaries for Germany, German resources would pay for the war,

101 Casablanca 1943 Casablanca 1943 Teheran 1943 Teheran 1943 Yalta-February 1945 Yalta-February 1945

102 Holocaust Timeline of Holocaust Timeline of Holocaust Timeline of Holocaust Timeline of Holocaust Anti-Semitic laws in Germany begin in 1935 Nuremburg Laws Anti-Semitic laws in Germany begin in 1935 Nuremburg Laws Holocaust begins when Germans invade Russia 1941 Holocaust begins when Germans invade Russia 1941

103 Holocaust Process First Nazi takeover Starts with 1939 invasion First Nazi takeover Starts with 1939 invasion Identification and Segregation of Jews and others (Ghettos and the Yellow Star) Identification and Segregation of Jews and others (Ghettos and the Yellow Star) Invasion of Russia Shooting of Jews on Mass Scale- early Holocaust- Russia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania Invasion of Russia Shooting of Jews on Mass Scale- early Holocaust- Russia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania More efficient killing methods developed- Killing Centers created- Death Camps poison Gas used More efficient killing methods developed- Killing Centers created- Death Camps poison Gas used Ghettos Liquidated by train transport- Ghettos Liquidated by train transport-

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106 German Atrocity… A Survivor's Eyewitness Account by Dina Pronicheva "It was dark already...They lined us up on a ledge which was so small that we couldn't get much of a footing on it. They began shooting us. I shut my eyes, clenched my fists, tensed all my muscles and took a plunge down before the bullets hit me. It seemed I was flying forever. But I landed safely on the bodies. After a while, when the shooting stopped, I heard the Germans climbing into the ravine. They started finishing off all those who were not dead yet, those who were moaning, hiccuping, tossing, writhing in agony. They ran their flashlights over the bodies and finished off all who moved. I was lying so still without stirring, terrified of giving myself away. I felt I was done for. I decided to keep quiet. They started covering the corpses over with earth. They must have put quite a lot over me because I felt I was beginning to suffocate. But I was afraid to move. I was gasping for breath. I knew I would suffocate. Then I decided it was better to be shot than buried alive. I stirred but I didn't know that it was quite dark already. Using my left arm I managed to move a little way up. Then I took a deep breath, summoned up my waning strength and crawled out from under the cover of earth. It was dark. But all the same it was dangerous to crawl because of the searching beams of flashlight and they continued shooting at those who moaned. They might hit me. So I had to be careful. I was lucky enough to crawl up one of the high walls of the ravine, and straining every nerve and muscle, got out of it."

107 FDR Dies April 12, 1945 FDR dies and Harry Truman takes over FDR dies and Harry Truman takes over FDR was elected to an unprecedented 4 terms FDR was elected to an unprecedented 4 terms He was a extremely beloved leader. He was a extremely beloved leader. Roosevelt had filled their lives through depression and war for more than a dozen years, allying their fears and giving them hope. Now he was gone… Roosevelt had filled their lives through depression and war for more than a dozen years, allying their fears and giving them hope. Now he was gone… Election of 1944 running mate Harry S. Truman, from Missouri, a Democratic Senator, becomes President. Election of 1944 running mate Harry S. Truman, from Missouri, a Democratic Senator, becomes President.

108 Harry Truman Democrat, Missouri Democrat, Missouri Vet of WWI- Combat Vet of WWI- Combat Failed Business Haberdasher= Men's clothing store Failed Business Haberdasher= Men's clothing store Political Machine Politician Political Machine Politician Senator 1934 Senator 1934 Loyal New Deal advocate Loyal New Deal advocate Honest- great concern for Public interest The Buck Stops here. Scrappy Was ill-informed when he took office. (FDR controlled all)

109 Manhattan Project Oppenheimer Oppenheimer Alamogordo Alamogordo

110 Was dropping the bomb necessary?

111 GI Bill of Rights GI is the term used for American soldiers in WWII. (G.I. means General Issue) GI is the term used for American soldiers in WWII. (G.I. means General Issue) The Servicemens Readjustment Act The Servicemens Readjustment Act Provided veterans a series of benefits: Provided veterans a series of benefits: Low interest loans for homes, business, and farms Low interest loans for homes, business, and farms Aid for education Aid for education


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