2AP Outline 21. The Second World War The rise of fascism and militarism in Japan, Italy, and GermanyPrelude to war: policy of neutralityThe attack on Pearl Harbor and United States declaration of warFighting a multi-front warDiplomacy, war aims, and wartime conferencesThe United States as a global power in the Atomic Age22. The Home Front During the WarWartime mobilization of the economyUrban migration and demographic changesWomen, work, and family during the warCivil liberties and civil rights during wartimeWar and regional developmentExpansion of government power
3Terms to Know War in the Pacific War in Africa, Europe Treaty of VersaillesGood Neighbor PolicyBuenos Aires Conference, 1936Washington Naval Conference, 1922Kellogg-Briand Pact, 1928Stimson DoctrineTrade Agreements ActElection of 1940Axis Alliance, Mussolini, HitlerAppeasement/Munich AgreementLend-Lease Act, 1941German-Soviet Non-Aggression PactSelective Training and Service ActTripartite PactMaginot LineBattle of Britain/ Operation Sea LionAtlantic Charter, 1941Hideki Tojo/Japan, China, EmbargoWar Powers ActCharles A. Lindbergh (1930s)America First CommitteeReciprocal Trade Agreements,Europe then JapanMobilization, National War Labor BoardJapanese-American Internment, Korematsu v. USWar in the PacificWar in Africa, EuropeEisenhower, Second Front, D-Day, Battle of the BulgeServicemen’s Readjustment Act (G.I. Bill) Neutrality Acts,Four Freedoms SpeechRosie the Riveter, War Production BoardAfrican Americans in WarTuskegee Airmen, Phillip RandolphHolocaust and JewishWartime ConferencesCasablancaCairoTeheranQuebecYaltaPotsdamManhattan ProjectRobert OppenheimerLos Alamos, AlamogordoHarry S. TrumanDecision to drop bomb, NagasakiMarshall PlanIron Curtain
4Questions- Pre-World War II Basic questions you should be able to answer:How does the US public respond to Japanese, Italian, and German militarism and aggression in the 1930’s?Was it inevitable that the United States was going to join the War?How does the Roosevelt administration try to stay out of the growing conflicts in Europe and Asia and what finally pushes the US into the conflict?How was FDR’s “Good Neighbor” policy a departure for American politicians since the 1890’s?
5Quiz 3-13 Respond to two of the following: How did FDR reinforce the policy toward Latin America begun by the Hoover administration?Explain how the Stimson Doctrine is applied in relation to China.What action does Congress take in an effort to support American neutrality?
6United States Status After WWI After WWI US is considered Isolationist by many, because of the desire to stay out of international politics (not a member of League of Nations…Wilson and Republicans)Few international treaties:Washington Naval Conference- limits naval armamentsKellogg-Briand Pact-outlaws warDawes Plan- reorganizes German WWI debt paymentsTrade drives American motivesReduction of interference in Latin America (Good Neighbor)Above all- popular opinion in US is to stay out of foreign wars!
7FDR and Foreign Affairs Similar to Wilson, FDR wanted to use power to maintain orderMoral and just principlesHowever, must abide by public opinion which is IsolationistInterventionistAppoints Cordell Hull as Secretary of StateBasic views:Isolation is not a lasting policyTechnology impacts distance of oceansImportant to maintain American interestsReciprocal Reduction of Tariffs- will help the economy= countries that reduce tariffs, US will also reduce tariffs= more trade for both partners
8“Good Neighbor” Policy FDR wanted to continue the cordial relations with the world and Latin America in particularContinued attempt begun with HooverCooperation and non-interventionistExample: 1933 Montevideo International Conference- UruguayRepudiated the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe DoctrineWithdrew troops from HaitiDid not send troops to Cuba1936 FDR visited Buenos Aires, arranged meeting of LA nations supporting peace movement
9Mussolini-Italian Right Wing Dictator Came to power in 1922Fascisti De Combatamento. (Fascist)Right Wing, anti-Socialist and CommunistWanted greatness like the Roman Empire for ItalyRepressive but not too extreme- (no concentration camps)NationalistInvades Somalia (1935) and Ethiopia in 1936
10Haile SelassieEthiopian Emperor- Condemned the invasion of his country in the League of NationsThis was a perfect example of the failure of the League- no way to enforce peace- beyond economic sanctionsHaile Selassie is regarded as the Messiah of the African race by followers of the Rastafarian movement. The word ''Rastafarian'' comes from Selassie's pre-coronation name, Ras Tafari.
11Hitler Rises to Power Germany has problems Economic Depression Conflict with Socialist/Communists against Right Wing Groups- Nazis are one groupNazis gain significant power in Reichstag (German legislature) 1933 and Hitler ascends to Chancellor (similar to Prime Minister-executive branch)
13Factors that Contributed to Hitler’s Rise Economic depressionTreaty of Versailles (Peace Treaty Germany and Allies World War I)Striped Germany of land (East Prussia, Danzig and empire)Striped Germany of military, navy, air forceAllies had a right to intervene (Saar Basin Rhineland, many resources)German had to take explicit blame for the warPay War RepartitionsSocialists/Communists vs Right Wing groups were fighting for controlCreated conditions for popularity of Nazis for some German voters
14Hitler and HindenburgNew Chancellor and Old President of Weimar Republic
15Hitler-Once in Power Hitler vows to make Germany great again To “Claim its rightful place in the Sun.”Reichstag fire = Hitler has emergency powersHitler begins to implement his plan- (found in his book Mein Kampf)Rearm GermanyUnite the German people in one country (all German speaking people; 1938 Anschluss- political unity between Austria and Germany, later (Sudetenland) Czechoslovakia and East Prussia (part of Poland)Ethnically Cleanse German Territory (all non-Aryan…Jews, Gypsies)Expand East “Lebensraub”- into Russian lands, Destroy communists
16European AppeasementOne of the huge lessons of World War II that is brought up again and again is the idea of Appeasement (giving in to demands as an expedient to avoid a conflict or difficult struggle)The powers of France, Great Britain and others in Europe have been accused of appeasing Hitler when they should have stopped his early demands.The idea is that perhaps Hitler could have been stopped. Before he was too powerful.By giving in to Hitler’s demands, it encouraged him to push further and brought another Global WarBritish Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain will always be remembered for his appeasement of Hitler. (“Peace in Our Time”) Munich Agreement
17Why did the Allies appease Hitler? Treaty of Versailles- Peace was too harshAll consuming desire for peaceRearmamentNationalism- create one nation, racial, ethnic homogeneity, with strength and a traditional spiritual locationAnschluss-Chamberlain and Munich= Sudetenland,1939 Poland and the Polish Corridor-Danzig-Nazi-Soviet Non-aggression Pact1941 Lebensraum and Operation Barbarossa-
18Failure of the League of Nations Recall the League of Nations was designed to prevent warProblems: US is not part ofIt did not have an enforcement capability- especially could not use forceOnly weapon was economic embargo and public pressureWhen Japan, then Italy, and later Germany pursue aggression invading other countries (Manchuria, Somalia, Ethiopia, Spanish Civil War, and Czchoslovakia)The international body will have little or no effect
19China Still Weak After WWI China remains weak “Open Door” Reinforced Nationalists (Kuomintang) Sun-Yat Sen and Chiang Kai-shek- Friendly to United States Fighting over control with Communist forces of Mao Tse Tung
20JapanWanted to expand it’s empire similar to France, Britain, and the US.Want to control China’s abundant natural resourcesJapan was angry regarding the Washington Naval Conference (1921- Harding Admin, set limit for Japanese Navy, subordinate position to US and Britain, reinforced the “Open Door” policy, all nations can trade with China.Japanese nationalists rise in power and asserted that power in Manchuria
21Japan invades Manchuria 1931 Russo-Japanese War- begins Japanese interest in Manchuria (Rivals of Russians, and economic interests, raw materials)Japanese military asserted rights to ManchuriaMilitary- incident with Chinese forces is an excuse for full takeover of Manchuria, new name is Manchukuo.Later to further weaken China, Japan will bomb Shanghai- over a boycott of Japanese goods
23Results of Japanese invasion of Manchuria US President was Hoover (1932)Hoover responds with the Stimson Doctrine- (Secretary of State under Hoover) refusing to acknowledge results of gains made by aggression-US will not recognize territorial changes-League of Nations condemns the attack on ChinaJapan subsequently withdraws from League of Nations (League is essentially ignored)No country wants war and China will suffer greatly when Japan attacks full scale invasion 1936(caution very graphic see Rape of Nanjing)300,000 civilians killedJapan proclaims new order in Asia, and essentially closes the “Open Door”
24Chinese FightChiang Kai-shek resists the Japanese and moves capital to Chunking and even unites with the the Communists- Mao Tse Tung for the duration of the war.
25American NeutralityThe Neutrality Act of members of congress, wanted to keep America out of warPopular idea, US entered WWI because of bankers and industrialistsImposed an embargo on warring nationsForbade American sale of war goods and ships from transporting munitions to belligerent countriesGave president power to prohibit Americans traveling on belligerent shipsNeutrality Act forbade loans to belligerent countriesNeutrality Act response to the Spanish Civil WarGoods from the US to warring nations had to be paid for in cash (2 years only)
26More Neutrality Many groups in America wanted Isolation Irish, German- AmericansMidwesterners, Anti-Communists, Anti-Semites, liberals who wanted continue reform, and pacifistsLudlow Amendment- Isolationist support was so great that- an amendment to Constitution was proposed, that only in case of attack or invasion could US declare war. (not approved)
27Quarantine Speech1937 FDRThe Quarantine Speech FDR on 1937 calling for an international "quarantine of the aggressor nations" as an alternative to the political climate of American neutrality and isolationism that was prevalent at the time.The speech intensified America's isolationist mood, causing protest by isolationists and foes to intervention.The speech was a response to aggressive actions by Italy and Japan, and suggested the use of economic pressure, a forceful response, but less direct than outright aggression.
28FDR Tries to Aide Chinese Flying TigersAmerican “Volunteers”Fighting for ChineseRead More on the Web
29Spanish Civil WarLoyalists-Democratically elected Socialists are attacked by Francisco Franco-Insurgents- Generalissimo Francisco Franco- Nazis and Italian Fascists support with 50,000 troops, planes, and tanks.Loyalists are supported by Soviet Union and International Brigades (Foreign volunteers- For Whom the Bell Tolls)American Neutrality Acts – hurt the loyalist cause- Americans will not help the Spanish Gov.FDR wanted to help but was hampered by isolationist law makers
30Picasso’s painting of German bombing of ancient city of Gurenica, during Span Civ War-
32German-Soviet Non Aggression Pact August 23, Hitler and Stalin sign a secret agreement to partition Poland-Germans invade Poland in the WestRussians invade Poland in the EastWorld War II in Europe begins- France and Britain had guaranteed Polish sovereigntyUS responds with a renewed Neutrality act “cash and carry”
34Non Aggression PactGermans and Soviets share Poland-1939
35The “Phony War” Paris Falls June 1940 Refers to the period between Poland’s Surrender and the attack on France and Britain.September 1939-April 1940Germany rapidly beat Poland “Blitzkrieg”France and Britain mobilized and waited for attackApril 1940 Denmark, Norway,May 1940 Belgium and FranceDunkirk- 300,000 British troops escape the continent- Churchill now in chargeParis Falls June 1940England stands alone “Battle of Britain”
36Battle of Britain Brits were alone as of June 1940 Winston Churchill, the new prime minister summed up the British attitude:“We shall not flag or fail. We shall go on to the end. We shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and the oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be. We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender.”
37What will“…in God's good time, the New World, with all its power and might, steps forth to the rescue and the liberation of the old."
38United States Reacts to War Debate 1940: Isolationist or Internationalist IsolationistsAmerica First CommitteeCharles A Lindberg“Intervention is detrimental to American interests”InternationalistsCommittee to Defend AmericaBest way to keep US out of war is to Help allies fight the GermansRoosevelt is sympathetic“Defend America by Aiding the Allies”
41FDR Calls for Preparedness May 1940 FDR calls Congress to create an air force of 50,000 planesAnd capacity to produce 50,000 planes per yearBy June 1940 $3 Billion was appropriated for defenseBy October 1940, $17 Billion was appropriated for defense including Navy
42FDR Aids the AlliesSummer 1940 FDR asks congress to allow trade of 50 destroyers in exchange for 99 year leases for bases in the AtlanticAlthough population does not want to enter the war, 73% support aid to Britain.
431941 Lend Lease 1941 Lend Lease: Program to offer aid to Brits FDR in a “Fireside Chat” “If a neighbor’s home were on fire…”“lease, lend or otherwise dispose of” any items not vital to the nation’s defense.US is closer to the War- (US Ships secretly were supporting the British Navy by searching and reporting on U-boat locations)Hitler afraid to attack American Ships
44Atlantic Charter AUGUST 14, 1941 The President of the United States of America and the Prime Minister, Mr. Churchill, representing His Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom, being met together, deem it right to make known certain common principles in the national policies of their respective countries on which they base their hopes for a better future for the world.First, their countries seek no aggrandizement, territorial or other;Second, they desire to see no territorial changes that do not accord with the freely expressed wishes of the peoples concerned;Third, they respect the right of all peoples to choose the form of government under which they will live; and they wish to see sovereign rights and self government restored to those who have been forcibly deprived of them;Fourth, they will endeavor, with due respect for their existing obligations, to further the enjoyment by all States, great or small, victor or vanquished, of access, on equal terms, to the trade and to the raw materials of the world which are needed for their economic prosperity;Fifth, they desire to bring about the fullest collaboration between all nations in the economic field with the object of securing, for all, improved labor standards, economic advancement and social security;Sixth, after the final destruction of the Nazi tyranny, they hope to see established a peace which will afford to all nations the means of dwelling in safety within their own boundaries, and which will afford assurance that all the men in all lands may live out their lives in freedom from fear and want;Seventh, such a peace should enable all men to traverse the high seas and oceans without hindrance;Eighth, they believe that all of the nations of the world, for realistic as well as spiritual reasons must come to the abandonment of the use of force. Since no future peace can be maintained if land, sea or air armaments continue to be employed by nations which threaten, or may threaten, aggression outside of their frontiers, they believe, pending the establishment of a wider and permanent system of general security, that the disarmament of such nations is essential. They will likewise aid and encourage all other practicable measure which will lighten for peace-loving peoples the crushing burden of armaments.
45Meeting Before the War Before US enters War: August, 1941 Newfoundland Secret, FDR and Churchill meet to coordinateCreate the Atlantic Charter (a statement of principles agreed upon)Condemned AggressionEndorsed National Self DeterminationSelf Government as a universal rightCollective SecurityOpposed forced, undemocratic territorial changesSignificance: Became a great statement of Anglo-American Ideals and a precursor to the Post War ideals of the United Nations
47Selective Service Act Sept. 1940 TIME(September 23, 1940) Last week Congress passed the conscription bill. This week the President signed it. A new thing had entered U.S. life: although the U.S. had conscripted its citizens in two wars, never before had it conscripted them in peace. Some 16, men, aged 21 to 36, forthwith became liable to compulsory military service. How, when, whether conscription would actually touch them was prescribed in 1) the bill, and 2) the selective system which the Army & Navy had long since prepared against a martial day. The Bill laid down the general philosophy, rules, scope of conscription: No more than 900,000 conscripts can be called in any one year (the Army plans to call 800,000 a year). They will be kept in training for one year, will then enter an enlisted reserve where they will be subject to recall for emergency service for ten years or until they are 45. They will not be subject to periodic recalls for further training. But if Congress finds the nation in peril before their initial year's service ends, they can be held under arms indefinitely.
48Election of 1940 then the Draft FDR decides to Run for a third termThe Nation Needs emergency situation:War in EuropeProblems in AsiaWants to protect New Deal reformsRan against Wendell WillkieFDR Wins- then begins the processPrepare for War:DraftArmament build up
50Roosevelt’s Four Freedom’s Speech January 1941 To congress, State of the Union, focus on war preparedness“…the future of all the American Republics is today in serious danger.That is why this Annual Message to the Congress is unique in our history.The need of the moment is that our actions and our policy should be devoted primarily-almost exclusively--to meeting this foreign peril. For all our domestic problems are now a part of the great emergency.Just as our national policy in internal affairs has been based upon a decent respect for the rights and the dignity of all our fellow men within our gates, so our national policy in foreign affairs has been based on a decent respect for the rights and dignity of all nations, large and small. And the justice of morality must and will win in the end.
51Four Freedoms Continued “The first is freedom of speech and expression--everywhere in the world.The second is freedom of every person to worship God in his own way--everywhere in the world.The third is freedom from want--which, translated into world terms, means economic understandings which will secure to every nation a healthy peacetime life for its inhabitants-everywhere in the world.The fourth is freedom from fear--which, translated into world terms, means a world-wide reduction of armaments to such a point and in such a thorough fashion that no nation will be in a position to commit an act of physical aggression against any neighbor--anywhere in the world.”
52Significance of “Four Freedoms” Speech Represents FDR’s view that America needs to prepare for war and support Britain.FDR Prepares for WarIncreased Military appropriationsAliens are fingerprintedPeace time draft to raise 2 million troops
53October 1941 North Atlantic FDR was determined to continue to support England with “Lend Lease” materialExtended an American defense zone around IcelandAuthorized Navy Destroyers to escort British merchant ships, and shoot U-Boats on sightGreer and Reuben James Incidents cause the US Congress repeal last Neutrality Acts-Allowed arming of merchant shipsTransport of goods through war zonesNavy Escorts allowed (FDR- was hoping for an incident)
54Why did the Japanese Bomb Pearl Harbor? Japanese wanted to expand their empire into China. China had abundant natural resources that would benefit the Japanese desire to build industry. In early 1930s Japan began aggression in Manchuria (Manchckou) and later in 1937 began a full invasion of the Chinese mainland.The United States response was at first mild, Hoover-Stimson Doctrine. As Japan began the invasion of mainland China the US policy began to change to one of more active complaints and pressure on Japan in the form of economic embargo. At first the embargo only addressed limited goods like scrap metals, later oil was being added, all in an effort to dissuade the Japanese from further aggression in China.Japan knew that war was probable so they made a plan to destroy the American Navy at Pearl Harbor and invade the natural resource rich area of South East Asia, including: Malaysia, Indonesia (lots of oil), Philippines, and Indochina (lots of rubber, tin)
55Pearl HarborAmerican Reaction to Pearl Harbor American reaction to Pearl Harbor was swift and violent. Immediate calls for war and revenge were heard throughout the country. Congress declared war and thousands of soldiers volunteered to fight. Americans were mad and they would never forget the treachery of the Japanese.
56Big Questions: Winning the War To what extent was the (industrial) mobilization for war a key factor in the American victory?How is the American home front and mobilization in WWI similar to the home front and mobilization in WWII and how are they different?
57Basics of WWII Fighting a multi-front war Diplomacy, war aims, and wartime conferencesThe United States as a global power in the Atomic AgeThe Home Front During the WarWartime mobilization of the economyUrban migration and demographic changesWomen, work, and family during the warCivil liberties and civil rights during wartimeWar and regional developmentExpansion of government power
58Be able to summarize the following American response to Pearl HarborArsenal of DemocracyFinancing the warSize of governmentInternment of Japanese Americans
60“A date that will live in Infamy” President Franklin D. Roosevelt: Yesterday, December 7, 1941—a date which will live in infamy—the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan.The United States was at peace with that nation, and, at the solicitation of Japan, was still in conversation with its government and its emperor looking toward the maintenance of peace in the Pacific. Indeed, one hour after Japanese air squadrons had commenced bombing in the American island of Oahu, the Japanese ambassador to the United States and his colleague delivered to our secretary of state a formal reply to a recent American message. While this reply stated that it seemed useless to continue the existing diplomatic negotiations, it contained no threat or hint of war or armed attack.It will be recorded that the distance of Hawaii from Japan makes it obvious that the attack was deliberately planned many days or even weeks ago. During the intervening time the Japanese government has deliberately sought to deceive the United States by false statements and expressions of hope for continued peace.
63Jay Noreski: Yes sir. My name is Noreski. Jay Noreski Jay Noreski: Yes sir. My name is Noreski. Jay Noreski. I’m a World War veteran and 18. The last time I went to fought for democracy. They told me to fight for democracy. And I went over. I volunteered. But next time, I’m going to fight. There’s hate in my heart. What’s in me, what’s in my veins. I’m gonna kill, slaughter those Nazi ones if I come across a wounded one, wouldn’t interest me. I’d kill my own father if he dared fight against this country. I’m an American, not by birth, but by choice. And I’m mighty damn proud of it. What are you going to do in this county to chase every damn skunk—German, Russian, Japanese, where they come from—and never bring them back in this country. If I had—I wish I was the President for about one year, I would—there’d be not a goddamn skunk left here in this country. And I’m gonna tell you something else—United States never lost a war yet and never gonna lose it because five guys, we might [inaudible] about our presidents, about our Congressmen, about our—what do you call it? in charge of a state?
64Andrew Smith: My name’s Andrew Smith Andrew Smith: My name’s Andrew Smith. And I tell you, what I feel about the war, they’ve been talking war long enough. And they’ve been talking long time that we should have been in it. Way I feel about it—if it’d been up to me we’d a been fighting a year ago. When Hitler first started they’d been fighting, see, they would have stopped him before he got as far as they are. They’d have stopped him, in fact, that’s what I think this one’s gonna come up to be to stop him. And that’s the good thing that this really started, I think. As far as Japan’s concerned, why it’s just like he just said, it’s a stab in the back. They started something that nobody else, nobody gonna start, you know, and the man was supposed to be here, supposed to’ve been talking peace to our President, and they starting war over there. Well, I don’t think it was justice. No justice there. Negro people would do their very best if they had a chance to do what they can, that they would do their very best to do what they can. See? But, if they have a chance to do it. All they want is a chance. Because if they don’t get a chance, that’s the only reason they don’t do it because they really don’t get a chance. See? But if they get a chance, why I really think they would do their very best, especially if they all feel like I feel.
65Key Ideas: America’s Response to Pearl Harbor and War US had started to prepare 1940Airplane production/designDraft/Selective Service-1940Build the “Arsenal of Democracy”-Harness the Industrial and Economic power of the US- and focus it toward War.Focus on building War material- Specifically Air power, Bombers, B17, B24, B29Germany was the biggest threat, Focus of first phase of WarThen Japan
67Japan OffensiveHitler and Mussolini both declared war on the United States as a sign of support for the Japanese.Japan Attacks Polynesian Asia Immediately following the attack on Pearl Harbor Japanese forces began a systematic invasion of the Pacific. Malaysia, Singapore, Burma, French Indochina, and the Philippines were overrun. American forces in the Philippines were outnumbered and overwhelmed by Japanese forces.12,000 American prisoners were taken in the fall of the last Philippine strong hold called Bataan.“Bataan Death March”
68Philippines Fall to Japanese link April 9, U.S. forces on Bata-an surrender unconditionally to the Japanese. Link another link
70How does America respond to Pearl Harbor? Reading focus question:How does the war impact American society?Use specific examples from reading
71American “Arsenal of Democracy” America Mobilizes for War= (WPB)War Production Board- goal is to transform industrial production to War production, organize all industrial outputBoard had much power to control resources:Limited civilian goods- Rationing of food, fuel…Automobile production stoppedConservation and recycle movement, rubber, metal, grease,
72“Arsenal of Democracy” $320 Billion government spendingHuge amount was 6 times that of Roosevelt’s first two terms.
73Financing the War Taxes increase Income Loans/War Bonds 1941: 7 million people file taxes1944: 42 million people file taxesGovernment starts withholding $ from workersLoans/War Bonds$100 billion in bonds sold
74Problem of Inflation Prices rise with full inflation Full employment: GDP Doubles to $211.9 billionOffice of Price Administration is created to manage pricesFreezes pricesRations- Gas, tires, meat, sugar, shoes, coffee, canned goods (Ration books-needed coupons to purchase goods)
75The Size of Government Explodes Hundreds of agencies created:National War Labor Boards- to manage labor practices and prevent strikesOffice of War Mobilization- to help coordinate agenciesLocal Draft Boards
76Internment of Japanese Americans Japanese immigrants had increased in the United States since the early 1900s (See Gentlemen's Agreement- TRoosevelt 1907)Issei-Japanese immigrants, born in JapanNisei- US citizens- children of Japanese immigrantsWhen Japan bombed Pearl Harbor a great backlash was directed at Japanese AmericansFebruary 1942 FDR signed an Executive Order 9066“Remove any and all persons who might pose a threat to national security.”March 18, War Relocation Authority established in the U.S. which eventually will round up 120,000 Japanese-Americans and transport them to barb-wired relocation centers.Farwell to Manzanar: Book about Japanese Internment
77Japanese RelocationWere accused of potentially aiding Japanese espionageRacist attitudes greed were also factors some people wanted the opportunity to take Japanese land
78Japanese Internment Camps Japanese were relocated in Camps:Some Japanese sued for their rights:Korematus v. the United StatesSupreme Court upheld theInternment of the Japanese
79Japanese internmentIn the entire course of the war, 10 people were convicted of spying for Japan, all of whom were Caucasian.Roosevelt interned 120,000 Japanese2/3 were American citizens and had never shown disloyalty
80Japanese American Heroes 33,000 Japanese Americans servedJapanese-Americans sign up and fight for the U.S. in Europe, including the 442nd Regimental Combat Team, the most decorated unit in U.S. history.
81African Americans and the War A. Phillip Randolph- African American LeaderWanted more Civil Rights for African AmericansEnd of segregation in War Industries, Presidential Executive Order 8802Segregation in Military continued
82Women and the War Rosie the Riveter: Women go to work in munitions factories, other jobs, and the military
83War in Europe Allies agreed that Europe was first priority November 1942 North Africa 1942 Bombing campaign against Germany begunJuly 1942 Battle of Stalingrad begins-ends January 1943 turning point in the war.- Germany is doomed1943- Sicily-September 1943 Italy Surrenders (German Army occupies and holds Northern Italy)1944 Rome FallsJune 6, 1944 D-Day- Allied Invasion of Normandy France, the Second Front is opened.December 16, 1944 Battle of the Bulge (German counter attack in the Ardennes Forrest, 200K Germans attack Allies)May 8, 1945 Germany Surrenders (Hitler is dead, Russians conquer Berlin) V-E Day
85EisenhowerSupreme Allied Commander WWIIDwight David Eisenhower
86War in the PacificStrategy of Island Hopping: bypass some islands controlled by Japanese and attack specific islands, to obtain air bases in an effort to bomb Japan more efficiently and to build up forces in an effort to invade Japan.Timeline of WWII (everything you wanted to know and more)March 11, Gen. MacArthur leaves Philippines and is flown to Australia.April 9, 1942 US Troops surrender PhilippinesJune 4-5, 1942 Major victory at Midway Island US takes out Japanese aircraft carriers Link to Midway ENTERPRISE, HORNET, and YORKTOWN attackAugust 7, 1942 – First US Attack Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands.February 19, U.S. Marines invade Iwo Jima.July 5, 1945 Americans retake the PhilippinesApril 1, Okinawa.August 6, First Atomic Bomb dropped on Hiroshima from a B-29 flown by Col. Paul Tibbets“Little Boy”.August 9, Second Atomic Bomb is dropped on Nagasaki“Fat Man”VJ Day- August 15, 1945Japanese Surrender
89Okinawa April 1 1945 77K army plus 20K militia Japanese defenders Would not surrenderBuying time for home island fortificationKamikaze attacks- 300 planes at a timeKilled 4,900 sailors, wounded 4,824,Sank 36 ships and damaged 368 moreJapanese would not surrenderMass suicides with grenades and cyanide50K Americans invadeIsland is pacified in by June 19457,000 Japanese survive7K Americans killed, 31,800 wounded 35%.
90Atomic Bomb Production FDR authorized a secret program code named “Manhattan Project”1943, J. Robert Oppenheimer, led the team of physicists to develop and atomic weapon, to split the atomLos Alamos, New MexicoJuly 1945, the bomb was ready (Truman had no idea any bomb like this was being worked on, when he took office) Trinity
92Why did Truman Decide to Drop 2 bombs on Japan? “Every man in these fortifications will follow his superior officer’s order and fight to the end for the sake of the motherland…Do not suffer the shame of being taken prisoner.”Last words of commander at OkinawaJapanese had 2 million men under arms and 4 million in reserve in the home islands5000 Kamikaze waitingThe experience of Okinawa and Iwo JimaRevealed the US casualties to invade Japan would number in the hundreds of thousands-With an invasion force of 700KWhen the Atomic bomb was ready it was seen as the only solution to saving American lives. The Japanese would not surrender.
99Propaganda Did the US engage in propaganda during this war? How and who was involved?Can you cite some examples?
100Wartime ConferencesFDR (and later Truman) will coordinate the effort with Allied leaders Churchill, and later StalinCasablanca-1943 FDR, Churchill, agreed on war aims: Sicily invasion, Unconditional Surrender- of Japan and GermanyCairo FDR and Churchill, Chiang Kai-shek- discussed war aims in Asia, Japan will lose all islands acquired, Korea independentTeheran-1943 The “Big Three” discussed 2nd front in Europe (France), Postwar Germany,Yalta-February 1945 “Big Three” Discussed the fate of Poland, Stalin asserted need for “Buffer Zone” and sphere of influence; Stalin promised to allow free elections; planned for the division of Germany after the war; Stalin promised to declare war on Japan in exchange for Japanese land/Kurile Islands; (FDR is dying and will be criticized for being manipulated by Stalin and “selling out” Eastern Europe to the Russians.Potsdam- Germany, July 1945, FDR dead, Truman, Churchill gone, new Brit- Clement Atlee, Stalin- discussed boundaries for Germany, German resources would pay for the war,
102Holocaust Timeline of Holocaust Anti-Semitic laws in Germany begin in 1935 Nuremburg LawsHolocaust begins when Germans invade Russia 1941Holocaust
103Holocaust Process First Nazi takeover Starts with 1939 invasion Identification and Segregation of Jews and others (Ghettos and the Yellow Star)Invasion of Russia Shooting of Jews on Mass Scale- early Holocaust- Russia, Estonia, Latvia, LithuaniaMore efficient killing methods developed- Killing Centers created- “Death Camps” poison Gas usedGhettos Liquidated by train transport-
106A Survivor's Eyewitness Account by Dina Pronicheva German Atrocity…A Survivor's Eyewitness Account by Dina Pronicheva"It was dark already...They lined us up on a ledge which was so small that we couldn't get much of a footing on it. They began shooting us. I shut my eyes, clenched my fists, tensed all my muscles and took a plunge down before the bullets hit me. It seemed I was flying forever. But I landed safely on the bodies. After a while, when the shooting stopped, I heard the Germans climbing into the ravine. They started finishing off all those who were not dead yet, those who were moaning, hiccuping, tossing, writhing in agony. They ran their flashlights over the bodies and finished off all who moved. I was lying so still without stirring, terrified of giving myself away. I felt I was done for. I decided to keep quiet. They started covering the corpses over with earth. They must have put quite a lot over me because I felt I was beginning to suffocate. But I was afraid to move. I was gasping for breath. I knew I would suffocate. Then I decided it was better to be shot than buried alive. I stirred but I didn't know that it was quite dark already. Using my left arm I managed to move a little way up. Then I took a deep breath, summoned up my waning strength and crawled out from under the cover of earth. It was dark. But all the same it was dangerous to crawl because of the searching beams of flashlight and they continued shooting at those who moaned. They might hit me. So I had to be careful. I was lucky enough to crawl up one of the high walls of the ravine, and straining every nerve and muscle, got out of it."
107FDR Dies April 12, 1945 FDR dies and Harry Truman takes over FDR was elected to an unprecedented 4 termsHe was a extremely beloved leader.“Roosevelt had filled their lives through depression and war for more than a dozen years, allying their fears and giving them hope. Now he was gone…”Election of 1944 running mate Harry S. Truman, from Missouri, a Democratic Senator, becomes President.
108Harry Truman Honest- great concern for Public interest Democrat, MissouriVet of WWI- CombatFailed Business Haberdasher= Men's clothing storePolitical Machine PoliticianSenator 1934Loyal New Deal advocateHonest- great concern for Public interest“The Buck Stops here.” ScrappyWas ill-informed when he took office. (FDR controlled all)
111“GI Bill of Rights”GI is the term used for American soldiers in WWII. (G.I. means General Issue)The Servicemen’s Readjustment ActProvided veterans a series of benefits:Low interest loans for homes, business, and farmsAid for education