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“LINGUE IN PIAZZA” Ref. 225857-CP-1-2005-1-IT-LINGUA-L1. Autonomy in language learning.

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Presentation on theme: "“LINGUE IN PIAZZA” Ref. 225857-CP-1-2005-1-IT-LINGUA-L1. Autonomy in language learning."— Presentation transcript:

1 “LINGUE IN PIAZZA” Ref CP IT-LINGUA-L1. Autonomy in language learning

2 Autonomous learning means: Control over the learning process Control over the learning process Acquiring learning strategies Acquiring learning strategies Acquiring ways to use these strategies without the help of a teacher (Thomson – we are born independent students but when we learn a language, autonomousn learning becomes difficult and we prefer the direction of a teacher) Acquiring ways to use these strategies without the help of a teacher (Thomson – we are born independent students but when we learn a language, autonomousn learning becomes difficult and we prefer the direction of a teacher) More control over objectives More control over objectives More control over the ways in which we learn More control over the ways in which we learn

3 Autonomous learning Offers learners the freedom to take decisions on: - content Offers learners the freedom to take decisions on: - content - organization - organization - pace of study - pace of study

4 An autonomous learner is: Methodical and disciplined Methodical and disciplined Logical and analytical Logical and analytical reflective reflective flexible flexible Responsible and persistent Responsible and persistent Creative and willing to take risks Creative and willing to take risks confident confident Aware of the learning process Aware of the learning process Able to assess and criticise Able to assess and criticise

5 Before starting I must accept responsibilty for my studies I must accept responsibilty for my studies I must understand the aims of my studies I must understand the aims of my studies I must know my level of English I must know my level of English I must identify my immediate aims I must identify my immediate aims I must plan my learning programme. The use of a diary is useful. When the student writes a learning plan, the level of involvement increases – Martyn 1994 I must plan my learning programme. The use of a diary is useful. When the student writes a learning plan, the level of involvement increases – Martyn 1994 I must identify learning problems I must identify learning problems I must be able to select I must be able to select I must understand the learning process I must understand the learning process I must measure my progress from time to time I must measure my progress from time to time

6 The autonomous student doesn’t need to be alone! Autonomous learning does not mean isolated learning. Several studies have shown that many aspects of learning are best done with other students Autonomous learning does not mean isolated learning. Several studies have shown that many aspects of learning are best done with other students Study groups Study groups Tandem Tandem chat chat

7 Why is English so difficult? There are so many words! There are more words in English than in any other language in the world. English is a Germanic language but with the Norman conquest, many new words entered the language from French and Latin. For example, the Anglo-Saxons had two words for cooking - cook and bake but the French who were perhaps better cooks – introduced many more words – fry, grill, roast. There are so many words! There are more words in English than in any other language in the world. English is a Germanic language but with the Norman conquest, many new words entered the language from French and Latin. For example, the Anglo-Saxons had two words for cooking - cook and bake but the French who were perhaps better cooks – introduced many more words – fry, grill, roast. In the Renaissance, the English language was considered to be inferior so many words were introduced from French, Italian and Spanish. For this reason, we often have two or more words when one would be enough! In the Renaissance, the English language was considered to be inferior so many words were introduced from French, Italian and Spanish. For this reason, we often have two or more words when one would be enough! Freedom (Anglo-Saxon) liberty (French) Freedom (Anglo-Saxon) liberty (French) Graveyard (Anglo-Saxon) cemetery (French) Graveyard (Anglo-Saxon) cemetery (French) Heaven (Anglo-Saxon) paradise (French) Heaven (Anglo-Saxon) paradise (French) Read ‘about the language’ Read ‘about the language’

8 Why is English so difficult? The spoken word often does not reflect the written version The spoken word often does not reflect the written version The English and Americans eat their words! The English and Americans eat their words! The pronunciation is difficult The pronunciation is difficult It is not a logical language and there are many exceptions to the rules It is not a logical language and there are many exceptions to the rules

9 But there are some advantages! The structure of English is quite simple. There are no cases or declinations – the relationship of words depends on word order. Nouns do not have a gender and the adjectives do not change The structure of English is quite simple. There are no cases or declinations – the relationship of words depends on word order. Nouns do not have a gender and the adjectives do not change Considering the ubiquity of the English language, it is quite easy to find ways to learn it autonomously – 70% of Internet sites are in English for example and many world famous musicians are English or American Considering the ubiquity of the English language, it is quite easy to find ways to learn it autonomously – 70% of Internet sites are in English for example and many world famous musicians are English or American

10 Why don’t you write English as you speak it? The main reasons date back to the Middle Ages when the written language was more or less fixed. There are various different dialects in Britain and in the 13° century, everyone wrote in his own dialect. Then the London dialect became the official written language. The dialect of London changed over the centuries but the written version remained the same. Therefore we still have the written language of seven centuries ago though the spoken language has changed. For example, the pronunciation of vowels has changed and many consonants are no longer pronounced in certain words The main reasons date back to the Middle Ages when the written language was more or less fixed. There are various different dialects in Britain and in the 13° century, everyone wrote in his own dialect. Then the London dialect became the official written language. The dialect of London changed over the centuries but the written version remained the same. Therefore we still have the written language of seven centuries ago though the spoken language has changed. For example, the pronunciation of vowels has changed and many consonants are no longer pronounced in certain words (Wednesday, know, gnome, scientist) (Wednesday, know, gnome, scientist)

11 Another problem goes back to the Norman conquest. The Norman scribes wrote English according to French writing conventions. For example, the word ‘country’ was pronounced ‘cuntri’ by the Anglo-Saxons but the French wrote ‘ou’ for the ‘u’ sound Another problem goes back to the Norman conquest. The Norman scribes wrote English according to French writing conventions. For example, the word ‘country’ was pronounced ‘cuntri’ by the Anglo-Saxons but the French wrote ‘ou’ for the ‘u’ sound

12 In the eigthteenth century, scholars tried to improve the language by inserting consonants to indicate the Latin origin of the word. No English person has ever pronounced the ‘s’ in the word ‘island’ – it was put in to indicate the Latin root – as in castle, debt, doubt, receipt, tomb In the eigthteenth century, scholars tried to improve the language by inserting consonants to indicate the Latin origin of the word. No English person has ever pronounced the ‘s’ in the word ‘island’ – it was put in to indicate the Latin root – as in castle, debt, doubt, receipt, tomb

13 So how canI learn to pronounce English well? There aren’t any rules for English pronunciation! Some words that contain sounds that look similar are pronounced very differently (good, food, blood) and otheres that look completely different are pronounced in the same way (right, write) There aren’t any rules for English pronunciation! Some words that contain sounds that look similar are pronounced very differently (good, food, blood) and otheres that look completely different are pronounced in the same way (right, write) Don’t despair. You need to learn the phonetics – symbols that represent sounds and things will seem easier. Don’t despair. You need to learn the phonetics – symbols that represent sounds and things will seem easier.

14 Vowel sounds i: see, sea, be i: see, sea, be I Italy, rich, sit I Italy, rich, sit U put, book, foot U put, book, foot U: food, rude, shoe, two, you, flew U: food, rude, shoe, two, you, flew e ten, hen, pen, men e ten, hen, pen, men Λ cup, love, bus Λ cup, love, bus Æ hat, apple, fat Æ hat, apple, fat a: car, father, party a: car, father, party З: girl, world, pearl, Thursday З: girl, world, pearl, Thursday Ɔ: four, door, daughter, raw, more Ɔ: four, door, daughter, raw, more ∂ ago, America, colour, mother ∂ ago, America, colour, mother Ŋ orange, Australia, honour Ŋ orange, Australia, honour

15 1. i: bead 1. i: bead 2. I bid 2. I bid 3. U bud (N. English) 3. U bud (N. English) 4. U: booed 4. U: booed 5. e bed 5. e bed 6. Λ bud 6. Λ bud 7. Æ bad 7. Æ bad 8. a: bard 8. a: bard 9. З: bird 9. З: bird 10. Ɔ: bored 10. Ɔ: bored 11. ∂ cupboard 11. ∂ cupboard 12. Ŋ body 12. Ŋ body Which vowel do these words contain? EARTH HARD LORD Which vowel do these words contain? EARTH HARD LORD LOVE LEAVE WHO AUSTRIA SHIP RICH REACH APPLE THURSDAY BREAD CALL

16 DIPTHONGS I ∂ here, near, fear I ∂ here, near, fear e I late, hate, (the rain in Spain falls mainly on the plain ) e I late, hate, (the rain in Spain falls mainly on the plain ) u ∂ pure, sure u ∂ pure, sure Ɔ I toy, boy Ɔ I toy, boy e a hair, fair, air e a hair, fair, air a I five, dive a I five, dive au how now brown cow au how now brown cow ∂ u home, window, hello ∂ u home, window, hello

17 You say yes, I say no You say stop and I say go, go, go Oh, no You say goodbye and I say hello Hello, hello I don't know why you say goodbye I say hello Hello, hello I don't know why you say goodbye I say hello I say high, you say low You say why, and I say I don't know Oh, no You say goodbye and I say hello Hello, hello I don't know why you say goodbye I say hello Hello, hello I don't know why you say goodbye I say hello Why, why, why, why, why, why Do you say good bye Goodbye, bye, bye, bye, bye Oh, no You say goodbye and I say hello Hello, hello I don't know why you say goodbye I say hello Hello, hello I don't know why you say goodbye I say hello hello, hello I don't know why you say goodbye I say hello Hello You say yes, I say no You say stop and I say go, go, go Oh, no You say goodbye and I say hello Hello, hello I don't know why you say goodbye I say hello Hello, hello I don't know why you say goodbye I say hello I say high, you say low You say why, and I say I don't know Oh, no You say goodbye and I say hello Hello, hello I don't know why you say goodbye I say hello Hello, hello I don't know why you say goodbye I say hello Why, why, why, why, why, why Do you say good bye Goodbye, bye, bye, bye, bye Oh, no You say goodbye and I say hello Hello, hello I don't know why you say goodbye I say hello Hello, hello I don't know why you say goodbye I say hello hello, hello I don't know why you say goodbye I say hello Hello

18 CONSONANTS p pen, pill p pen, pill b bar, bad b bar, bad t tea, take t tea, take d do did d do did tƒ cheese, choose tƒ cheese, choose dz June January dz June January k cat, cream k cat, cream g good g good f fall f fall v voice v voice θ thin, north θ thin, north ð those, these ð those, these s so, see s so, see z rose shoes z rose shoes

19 she. Shoes she. Shoes (she sells sea shells on the sea shore and the shells she sells are sea-shells) (she sells sea shells on the sea shore and the shells she sells are sea-shells) З pleasure, treasure З pleasure, treasure m n ŋ thing, sing ŋ thing, sing H l r w Europe, yes Europe, yes

20 Yesterday, all my troubles seemed so far away Now it looks as thought they're here to stay Oh I believe in yesterday Yesterday, all my troubles seemed so far away Now it looks as thought they're here to stay Oh I believe in yesterday Suddenly, I'm not half the man I used to be There's a shadow hanging over me Oh yesterday, came suddenly Suddenly, I'm not half the man I used to be There's a shadow hanging over me Oh yesterday, came suddenly Why she, had to go I don't know she wouldn't say I said, something wrong Now I long for yesterday Why she, had to go I don't know she wouldn't say I said, something wrong Now I long for yesterday Yesterday, love was such an easy game to play Now I need a place to hide away Oh I believe in yesterday. Yesterday, love was such an easy game to play Now I need a place to hide away Oh I believe in yesterday. Why she, had to go I don't know She wouldn't say I said, something wrong Now I long for yesterday Why she, had to go I don't know She wouldn't say I said, something wrong Now I long for yesterday Yesterday, love was such an easy game to play Now I need a place to hide away Oh I believe in yesterday. Yesterday, love was such an easy game to play Now I need a place to hide away Oh I believe in yesterday.

21 Go onto the site and find the pronunciation for these words Reign colonel Reign colonel Sword appalling Sword appalling Malignant doubt Malignant doubt Knight exhausting Knight exhausting Amazing scientist Amazing scientist Oregano birthday Oregano birthday Arrangement cupboard Arrangement cupboard Mountain further Mountain further

22 Test your English First you must find your level of English – do a test on a website (40 questions to establish your level – quite easy) (40 questions to establish your level – quite easy) (you already need to know your level) (you already need to know your level) (a bit difficult) (a bit difficult) (very difficult) (very difficult)

23 Study groups Find two or three people in the group of your level (go round the class asking ‘what’s your level of English?) Find two or three people in the group of your level (go round the class asking ‘what’s your level of English?) Discuss why you want to learn English Discuss why you want to learn English What are the difficulties in your opinion? What are the difficulties in your opinion? How can you overcome these difficulties? How can you overcome these difficulties? Do you know your learning style? Do you have a good memory? Do you have to write down words to learn them? Do you know your learning style? Do you have a good memory? Do you have to write down words to learn them?

24 In your groups of two or three, try to write a learning plan For example: For example: Understand better the pronuncation Understand better the pronuncation Buy a good dictionary Buy a good dictionary Do exercises on verbs Do exercises on verbs Learn irregular past verbs Learn irregular past verbs Learn some useful expressions Learn some useful expressions


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