4 I. Life is Cellular A-The Discovery of the Cell It was not until the _________ that scientists began to use microscopes to observe organisms.In 1665 ____________used an early compound microscope to see tiny chambers in cork.He called these chambers cells after the tiny rooms in monasteries….we know these not to be empty now.Robert HookeMid-1600’s
5 About the same time in Holland________________used a single-lens microscope to look @ pond water, Anton van Leeuwenhoek
6 Cell TheoryIn 1838 Matthew Schleiden concluded plants were made of cells1839 Theodore Schwann said all animals were made of cells1855-Virchow said cells could only come from existing ones.
7 These 3 things compile_________________ Cell TheoryAll living things composed of ___________Cells are the basic units of ___________________of living thingsNew cells are produced from ______________________.Existing cellscellsStructure and function
8 B-Exploring the CellFlorescent labels and light microscopy have been used to follow molecules through the cell._________________,which scans cells w/a laser beam can make 3-d images of cellsVideo technology make it possible to watch cell growth , division and developmentConfocal light microscopy
9 Light makes it difficult to visualize tiny structures because it scatters/______________________allow things like proteins to be visualized (things as much as 1000 x smaller can be visualized….TEMS allow you to see specimens cut into ultra thin slicesElectron microscopes
10 W/ a ______________specimens do not have to be cut to see 3-D images… W/ a ______________specimens do not have to be cut to see 3-D images….both must be placed into a vacuum so air molecules do not scatter electrons1990’s-____________________________have revolutionalized visualization of surfaces and atoms have been observed…can be used in ordinary air and can show DNA structureScanning probe microscopesSEMpollen
11 C .Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes Cells typically range from _________micrometers,but some bacteria are .2 and some amoeba are 1000 micrometersAll cells have 2 things in common:cell membrane-a barrier@ some point they contain_______5-50 micrometersDNA
12 2 broad categories:_____________________________-genetic material is NOT contained in a nucleus/generally less complicated than other cells/carry out all cell activities…present day members are ________________.Prokaryotesbacteria
13 _____________________________-contain a nucleus w/ genetic material,generally larger,much diversity Eukaryotes
15 Working with a partner, answer the following questions. Division of LaborSection 7-2A cell is made up of many parts with different functions that work together. Similarly, the parts of a computer work together to carry out different functions.Working with a partner, answer the following questions.1. What are some of the different parts of a computer? What are the functions of these computer parts?2. How do the functions of these computer parts correspond to the functions of certain cell parts?Go to Section:
17 II. EUKARYOTIC CELL STRUCTURE Organelles2 major parts of eukaryotic cellsnucleuscytoplasmSpecialized structure that performs important functions within an eukaryotic cell.Cytoplasm is material inside membrane and outside nucleus
18 Plant Cell Smooth ER Vacuole (free) Cell Nucleolus Golgi apparatus Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal CellsSection 7-2NuclearenvelopeRibosome(attached)(free)Smooth ERNucleusRough ERNucleolusGolgi apparatusMitochondrianCell wallCellMembraneChloroplastVacuolePlant CellGo to Section:
19 Ribosome (free) Animal Cell Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells Section 7-2CentriolesNucleolusNucleusNuclearenvelopeRoughendoplasmicreticulumGolgi apparatusSmoothMitochondrianCellMembraneRibosome(free)(attached)Animal CellGo to Section:
20 The Nucleus Contains nearly all the cell’s DNA Codes for instructions to make proteins and other moleculesSurrounded by nuclear envelope---has many pores to allow material in and outContains chromatin—has DNA bound to protein,usually spread throughout nucleus,but condenses during cell division to make CHROMOSOMES,containing genetic infoUsually contain Nucleolus—assembly of ribosomes begin here.
21 Ribosomes Proteins are assembled here Made out of small particles of RNA and proteinFound throughout cytoplasmCoded instructions from nucleus tell how to make proteinsCells active in protein synthesis have a lot of ribosomes
22 Endoplasmic Reticulum Site where lipid components of cell membrane are assembled,along w/ proteins and other materials exported from cell(those proteins are made there)Rough ER is involved in protein synthesis,because ribosomes are on itNewly made proteins leave ribosomes and insert on rough ER ,where they may be modifiedIf cell makes a lot of protein ,there is much ERSmooth ER may contain many specialized enzymes
23 Lysosomes Small organelles filled w/enzymes May digest or break down lipids,carbs,and proteins into small molecules that can be used by the rest of the cellLysosomes remove “junk”,or used up organelles….very important that this aspect function occurs
24 VacuolesSac like structures that store water ,salts ,proteins, and carbsPlants may have a single large water filled vacuoleContractile vacuoles control water in paramecium
25 Mitochondria and Chloroplasts Most all eukaryotic cells contain mitochondria that convert chemical energy stored in food into compounds convenient for cell to useMitochondria have an outer and inner membranesIn humans,nearly all mitochondria comes from ovum(egg cell)
26 ChloroplastsCapture energy from sunlight and convert into chemical energy in photosynthesisContain 2 membranes and chlorophyll
27 Organelle DNA In chloroplasts and mitochondria Small DNA molecules Maybe descendants of early prokaryotes----Endosymbiotic theory says these prokaryoic ancestors developed a symbiotic relationship w/ early eukaryotes and resided within---evolving into mitochondria
28 CytoskeletonNetwork of protein filaments that help cell maintain shapeAlso involved in movementMICROFILAMENTS are threadlike structures made of a protein-actin….make a major network and a tough framework///allows amoebas and such to moveMICROTUBULES-hallow structures made of proteins called tubulins—important in holding a cell’s shape----form a mitotic spindle in cell division/which helps separate chromosomesCENTRIOLES are microtubules near nucleus in animals and help organize cell divisionMicrotubules also help make projections like cilia or flagella
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