Presentation on theme: "Joseph Margiotti Intro Unit Reviewing Task Visual Narration Task"— Presentation transcript:
1 Joseph Margiotti Intro Unit Reviewing Task Visual Narration Task NQ: Media Basic Video Camera Operations F585 11IntroUnitReviewingTaskVisual NarrationTask
2 Joseph Margiotti Outcomes : 1. Describe basic video camera functions. NQ: Media Basic Video Camera Operations F585 11To enable candidates to develop an understanding of basic cameraOperations and processes.This is a practical Unit providing a chancefor candidates to shoot their own video material.Outcomes :1. Describe basic video camera functions.2. Prepare equipment to shoot video source material.3. Use video camera equipment to shoot video sourcematerial in accordance with a given brief.
3 NQ: Media Basic Video Camera Operations F585 11 WEEK 4 - TaskThe team members should rotate for each item of the taskAttach Battery and power up CameraErect Tripod and mount camera securelyOpen LensSelect Record ModeSelect Manual FocusSelect Aperture PrioritySelect Correct f-stop for interior and white balance cameraFrame MCU and Focus SubjectFind and Playback Recording
4 Joseph Margiotti Homework This exercise is designed to help you with character building, story structure and writing action sequences.TASK:Script and Storyboard a 2 minute sequence with dialogue centred on two characters from you chosen film genre, i.e: gangster,horror,comedy.As a group, each member of the team should be able to justify the merits of the two characters that they have selected. The group should then work together as a crew member in each others film.Part a) Pre-production planning – script and storyboard must contain dialogue and have a minimum of10 different shots6 different standard television shot sizes1 pan and 1 tiltPart b) using the tripod:Shoot and in-camera edit of the sequence]
46 CameraEstablishing shot. Opening shot or sequence, frequently an exterior 'General View' as anExtreme Long Shot (ELS). Used to set the scene.
47 CameraLong shot (LS). Shot which shows all or most of a fairly large subject (for example, a person) and usually much of the surroundings. Extreme Long Shot (ELS) - see establishing shot: In this type of shot the camera is at its furthest distance from the subject, emphasising the background. Medium Long Shot (MLS): In the case of a standing actor, the lower frame line cuts off his feet and ankles. Some documentaries with social themes favour keeping people in the longer shots, keeping social circumstances rather than the individual as the focus of attention.
48 CameraMedium shots. Medium Shot or Mid-Shot (MS). In such a shot the subject or actor and its setting occupy roughly equal areas in the frame. In the case of the standing actor, the lower frame passes through the waist. There is space for hand gestures to be seen. Medium Close Shot (MCS): The setting can still be seen. The lower frame line passes through the chest of the actor. Medium shots are frequently used for the tight presentation of two actors (the two shot), or with dexterity three (the three shot).
49 Camera MCU (Medium Close-Up): head and shoulders. BCUs are rarely used for important public figures; MCUs are preferred, the camera providing a sense of distance. Note that in western cultures the space within about 24 inches (60 cm) is generally felt to be private space
50 CameraClose-up (CU). A picture which shows a fairly small part of the scene, such as a character's face, in great detail so that it fills the screen. It abstracts the subject from a context.Close-ups focus attention on a person's feelings or reactions, and are sometimes used in interviews to show people in a state of emotional excitement, grief or joy.
51 Camera BCU (Big Close-Up): forehead to chin. In interviews, the use of BCUs may emphasise the interviewee's tension and suggest lying or guilt. BCUs are rarely used for important public figures;
52 CameraAngle of shot. The direction and height from which the camera takes the scene. The convention is that in 'factual' programmes subjects should be shot from eye-level only. In a high angle the camera looks down at a character, making the viewer feel more powerful than him or her, or suggesting an air of detachment. A low angle shot places camera below the character, exaggerating his or her importance. An overhead shot is one made from a position directly above the action.
58 CameraCantedTilted shot. When the camera is tilted on its axis so that normally vertical lines appearslanted to the left or right, ordinary expectations are frustrated. Such shots are often usedin mystery and suspense films to create a sense of unease in the viewer.
59 CameraAngle of shot. The direction and height from which the camera takes the scene. The convention is that in 'factual' programmes subjects should be shot from eye-level only. In a high angle the camera looks down at a character, making the viewer feel more powerful than him or her, or suggesting an air of detachment. A low angle shot places camera below the character, exaggerating his or her importance. An overhead shot is one made from a position directly above the action.
60 CameraTilt. A vertical movement of the camera - up or down- while the camera mounting stays fixed.
61 CameraFollowing pan. The camera swivels (in the same base position) to follow a moving subject. A space is left in front of the subject: the pan 'leads' rather than 'trails'. A pan usually begins and ends with a few seconds of still picture to give greater impact. The speed of a pan across a subject creates a particular mood as well as establishing the viewer's relationship with the subject. 'Hosepiping' is continually panning across from one person to another; it looks clumsy.
62 Camera Camera Techniques: Movement Zoom. In zooming in the camera does not move; the lens is focussed down from a longshotto a close-up whilst the picture is still being shown. The subject is magnified, andattention is concentrated on details previously invisible as the shot tightens (contrasttracking). It may be used to surprise the viewer. Zooming out reveals more of the scene(perhaps where a character is, or to whom he or she is speaking) as the shot widens.Zooming in rapidly brings not only the subject but also the background hurtling towards theviewer, which can be disconcerting. Zooming in and then out creates an ugly 'yo-yo' effect.
63 Camera MovementCrab. The camera moves (crabs) right or left.
64 CameraTracking (dollying). Tracking involves the camera itself being moved smoothly towards oraway from the subject (contrast with zooming). Tracking in (like zooming) draws the viewerinto a closer, more intense relationship with the subject; moving away tends to createemotional distance. Tracking back tends to divert attention to the edges of the screen. Thespeed of tracking may affect the viewer's mood. Rapid tracking (especially tracking in) isexciting; tracking back relaxes interest. In a dramatic narrative we may sometimes bedrawn forward towards a subject against our will. Camera movement parallel to a movingsubject permits speed without drawing attention to the camera itself.
65 CameraFormatsShot. A single run of the camera or the piece of film resulting from such a run.Scene. A dramatic unit composed of a single or several shots. A scene usually takes place in a continuous time period, in the same setting, and involves the same characters.Sequence. A dramatic unit composed of several scenes, all linked togetherby their emotional and narrative momentum.
66 CameraA shot is a cinematic term defined as the space between camera cuts, and will typically be identified by a number appended to a scene abbreviation.A shot is the presentation of a complete or partial story action from a single, but not necessarily static, point of view.This point of view can drift or zoom as necessary to follow or help tell the story of a given shot. Once the shot cuts, fades or wipes to a different point of view, a new shot has been initiated.If you stage a quick dialogue exchange between Janice and Larry by showing a close-up of Janice, then cutting to a close-up of Larry and finally cutting back to Janice, you’ve created three distinct shots.If you stage this scene from a single, static POV that frames both characters, or you have the camera pan back and forth between these two individuals, the conversation will be contained within a single longer shot
67 CameraEvery shot in a film is indeed like a miniature story on its own. Most shots will have a beginning that directly relates to the previous shot (unless it is the first shot of a new scene).Each shot will also have a main action, which is the most important piece of information to describe in a storyboard panel.And every shot will have an ending, which will lead into the next shot in the sequence (assuming one exists).This mini story might require any number of storyboard panels to be described effectively.Even the absence of action can be considered a mini story
68 CameraThere are many kinds of shots — wide shots, bird’s-eye views, worm’s-eye views and over-the-shoulder shots.Use the appropriate angle and point of view to most effectively tell the story of any given shot.If your film is about a very small child, a fair amount of low-angle up shots will probably be appropriateWide shots are generally used to establish a new locale, while close-ups are often effective for conversations, reaction shots or inserts (in which the screen is filled with a pertinent object, such as a ringing phone, a bruised and throbbing finger or the numerical display on a ticking time bomb).Mix it up. A film made up of only wide shots will not be very dynamic.But don’t mix up angles and points of view arbitrarily or repeatedly.Every point-of-view change needs to be motivated by the need to stage a new or existing action more effectively.
69 CameraCut to a different camera angle only when it feels as if the audience will want to see the current or subsequent action from a more interesting or revealing point of view.An example would be a wide establishing shot that cuts to a close-up of a character in the midst of an action or a conversationAlso, it is often a good idea to hook up individual shots by motivating a camera cut with an action, such as a character looking or pointing in a particular direction, where the object of interest is subsequently revealed after the cut.
70 Camera Narrative style Subjective treatment. The camera treatment is called 'subjective' when the viewer istreated as a participant (e.g. when the camera is addressed directly or when it imitates theviewpoint or movement of a character). We may be shown not only what a character sees,but how he or she sees it. A temporary 'first-person' use of camera as the character can beeffective in conveying unusual states of mind or powerful experiences, such as dreaming,remembering, or moving very fast. If overused, it can draw too much attention to thecamera. Moving the camera (or zooming) is a subjective camera effect, especially if themovement is not gradual or smooth.Objective treatment. The 'objective point of view' involves treating the viewer as anobserver. A major example is the 'privileged point of view' which involves watching fromomniscient vantage points. Keeping the camera still whilst the subject moves towards oraway from it is an objective camera effect.
71 CameraViewpoint. The apparent distance and angle from which the camera views and records thesubject. Not to be confused with point-of-view shots or subjective camera shots.Point-of-view shot (POV). A shot made from a camera position close to the line of sight ofa performer who is to be watching the action shown in the point-of-view shot.Hand-held camera. A hand-held camera can produce a jerky, bouncy, unsteady imagewhich may create a sense of immediacy or chaos. Its use is a form of subjective treatment.
72 CameraReaction shot. Any shot, usually a cutaway, in which a participant reacts to action whichhas just occurred.Cutaway/cutaway shot (CA). A bridging, intercut shot between two shots of the samesubject. It represents a secondary activity occurring at the same time as the main action. Itmay be preceded by a definite look or glance out of frame by a participant, or it may showsomething of which those in the preceding shot are unaware. (See narrative style: paralleldevelopment) It may be used to avoid the technical ugliness of a 'jump cut' where therewould be uncomfortable jumps in time, place or viewpoint. It is often used to shortcut thepassing of time.Jump cut. Abrupt switch from one scene to another which may be used deliberately tomake a dramatic point. Sometimes boldly used to begin or end action. Alternatively, it maybe result of poor pictorial continuity, perhaps from deleting a section.
73 CameraTalking heads. In some science programmes extensive use is made of interviews with asuccession of specialists/ experts (the interviewer's questions having been edited out). Thisderogatively referred to as 'talking heads'. Speakers are sometimes allowed to talk tocamera. The various interviews are sometimes cut together as if it were a debate, althoughthe speakers are rarely in direct conversation.Vox pop. Short for 'vox populi', Latin for 'voice of the people'. The same question is put toa range of people to give a flavour of 'what ordinary people think' about some issue.Answers are selected and edited together to achieve a rapid-fire stream of opinions.Talk to camera (Piece to camera). The sight of a person looking ('full face') and talkingdirectly at the camera establishes their authority or 'expert' status with the audience. Onlycertain people are normally allowed to do this, such as announcers, presenters,newsreaders, weather forecasters, interviewers, anchor-persons, and, on specialoccasions (e.g. ministerial broadcasts), key public figures. The words of 'ordinary' peopleare normally mediated by an interviewer. In a play or film talking to camera clearly breaksout of naturalistic conventions (the speaker may seem like an obtrusive narrator). A shortsequence of this kind in a 'factual' programme is called a 'piece to camera'.
74 IN-CAMERA EDITING GUIDELINES Keep your locations as close together as possible this reduces wasted timeRehearse each shot thoroughly before you attempt to record it –you only have one chance!When you are ready to record your shot the director should call for silence andcount down from 10 to 5 out loud and then from five to zero using hand signals.On 2 the camera operator records and at 0 the performer starts their action.If you are trying to shoot people walking or a conversation already taking place the performers should start their walk or conversation during countdown making sure they are at the right point in the action by the time zero is reached.Overlap each shot – record 10 seconds more than you need. (Remember there is a standbyon the camera which means after 5 minutes without recording the camera will shut off, it isalmost impossible to set an accurate edit point after that.)
83 Camera HOMEWORK: Download handout The ‘Grammar’ of Television & Film by Daniel Chandler 1994 and revise framings; angles and cameraMovements in preparation for test.
84 CameraHOMEWORK:Select a scene from a movie and analyse the following:Genre of the filmNumber of shots in sceneType of shotsDuration of shotsPace of the editingThe ambience of the sceneBring the film clip in next week to present to the class with your analysis
85 Joseph Margiotti Homework This exercise is designed to help you with character building, story structure and writing action sequences.TASK:Script and Storyboard a 2 minute sequence with dialogue centred on two characters from you chosen film genre, i.e: gangster,horror,comedy.As a group, each member of the team should be able to justify the merits of the two characters that they have selected. The group should then work together as a crew member in each others film.Part a) Pre-production planning – script and storyboard must contain dialogue and have a minimum of10 different shots6 different standard television shot sizes1 pan and 1 tiltPart b) using the tripod: Shoot and in-camera edit of the sequence]