2Literary Aspects of Film Those aspects that films share with literature:plotcharacterssettingthemespoint of viewrecurring imagessymbols
3Questions to ask when viewing on a Literary Level: Who are the characters?What is the setting?What is the plot?From whose point of view is the story told?What is the film’s theme?Are there any symbols or recurring images?
4Dramatic Aspects of Film Those elements film shares with live drama:actors portraying characters through dialogue, costumes, and makeupsets and/or locationsdirectors who leave personal stamp on final product
5Questions to ask when viewing on a dramatic level: How effective is the acting? Why?How does the set affect understanding and enjoyment of the story?How are the costumes and makeup effective in establishing a character?
6Cinematic Aspects of Film Elements unique to filmRequires some knowledge of technical terms
7Other Ways to Organize a Film Study Genre StudiesFilm HistoryNational Cinema (Culture, Politics, Etc.)Auteurs (Directors)Foreign FilmsThematically
9Low Angle (l/a) Camera is located below subject matter Increases height and power of subjectThe Patriot
10“Eye-Level”Roughly 5 to 6 feet off the ground, the way an actual observer might view a sceneMost common, like walking down the street
11High Angle (h/a) Camera looks down at what is being photographed Takes away power of subject, makes it insignificantGives a general overviewHigh Noon
12Crane Shot a crane shot is a shot taken by a camera on a crane. The most obvious uses are to view the actors from above or to move up and away from them, a common way of ending a movie.
13Aerial Shot or Bird’s Eye View Camera is placed directly overheadExtremely disorientingViewer is godlikeusually done with a crane or with a camera attached to a special helicopter to view large landscapesBeverly Hills Girl Scouts
14Subjective or Point of View (POV) A shot taken from the vantage point a particular character, or what a character seesHollow Man
15Cross Cuttingan editing technique most often used in films to establish action occurring at the same time in two different locations.In a cross-cut, the camera will cut away from one action to another action, which can suggest the simultaneity of these two actions
16Extreme Close-Up (ECU) A shot of a small object or part of a face that fills the screenRocky Horror Picture ShowThe Saint In London
17Close-Up (CU) A shot of a small object or face that fills the screen Adds importance to object photographedUnder Pressure
18Medium Shot (MS)(Also relative) a shot between a long shot and a close-up that might show two people in full figure or several people from the waist upThe Talented Mr. Ripley
19Long Shot (LS)(A relative term) A shot taken from a sufficient distance to show a landscape, a building, or a large crowdAustin Powers andthe Spy Who Shagged Me
20Establishing Shot (or Extreme Long Shot) Shot taken from a great distance, almost always an exterior shot, shows much of localeELSIndiana Jones And The Temple Of Doom
21PanThe camera moves horizontally on a fixed base.
22TiltThe camera points up or down from a fixed base
23Zoom (Zoom In/Out)Not a camera movement, but a shift in the focal length of the camera lens to give the impression that the camera is getting closer to or farther from an object
24Tracking (dolly) shotThe camera moves through space on a wheeled truck (or dolly), but stays in the same plane of motionDolly shot
25Hand Held Cameraa film and video technique in which a camera is literally held in the camera-operator's hands--as opposed to being placed on a tripod.The result is an image that is perceptibly shakier than that of a tripod-mounted camera.
26High Key Lighta style of lighting for film, television, or photography that aims to reduce the lighting ratio present in the scene.High-key lighting is usually quite homogeneous and free from dark shadows.
27Low Key Lightattempts to create a chiaroscuro (contrast between light and dark) effect.accentuates the contours of an object by throwing areas into shade while a fill light or reflector may illuminate the shadow areas to control contrast.
28Back Lighting the process of illuminating the subject from the back. lights foreground elements from the rear, is not to be confused with a background light, which lights background elements (such as scenery).