7Establishing Shot Establishing Shot: Reveals the setting where the action will take place.The first shot in a scene.Often are Extreme Long Shots.
8Extreme Long Shot Extreme Long Shot: Shows the vastness of location. Often is an Establishing Shot.
9Extreme Long Shot (cont.) Maybe the best opening Establishing Shot ever:“Star Wars: Episode IV ‘A New Hope’”Beginning of the of a scene.Shows location/setting
10Long Shot Full body shot: Wide shot: Head-to-toe in frame Shows backgroundGood for action shotsorWide shot:Contains the entire subject you are shooting
11Medium Shot Medium Shot: Also called a Half shot. From the knees or waist upShows some background.Used for dialogue shots; presenting conversation.
12Bust Shot Bust Shot: Includes the head and shoulders of a person Little or no background seen
13Close-up Close-up: Extreme Close-up: Subject fills up the frameLittle or no background seenUsed for interest and emotional shotExtreme Close-up:Enlarge to monstrous proportions.EXTREME.Fills up frame-no backgroundAll Close-ups are used to point out something the director wants the audience to know!
15Normal Angle Eye-to-eye level Objective angle used for interviews or dialogue settings
16High Angle Camera is placed above, looking down on subject Gives the appearance of weakness or subservience.
17Low Angle Camera is placed below, looking up at subject Gives the appearance of strength and dominance.
18Dutch Angle Adjusting the frame to a 45–degree slant Used to add interest to the shot.Creates potential chaos.
19Point-of-View (POV) Shooting from a character’s point-of- view (POV). An angle in which the camera shows what would be visible from a particular subject's position.
20Over the Shoulder (OTS) Shooting from a character’s point-of- view (POV).Using part of a subject’s shoulder to shoot a tight medium shot of another subject.
21The Elements of Cinematography CameraS-A-Movements
22Pan Sweeping the camera horizontally, left or right. If hand-held: Feet planted.Hips rotate.Slow and smooth.
23Tilt Angling the camera vertically, up or down. If hand-held: Feet planted.Movement slow and smooth.Details character’sstature or costume.
24Zoom In/Out Camera Lens moves in and out. Creates subject size changes and focal points.“T” Telephoto: zooms in – making subject larger with background being eliminated.“W” Wide-angle: zooms out –making subject smaller with more background included.
25Physical MovementsPhysically moving the position of the Camera and/or Tripod from side-to-side.Called Dolly, Truck or Traveling/Onride movements.
26Physical Movements (cont.) Dollies are often used in point-of-view shots to give the audience the impression of approaching someone or something with the character.Although they look very similar at first glance, when zooming in on an object, by simply enlarging part of a frame, the object seems to be propelling itself towards the camera.Cool Effect: Combine the zoom in/out and the dolly in/out at same rate of speed for a animated movement to subject/object.
27Camera Movements (cont.) Tracking shots are conventionally used to follow movements across a frame, often moving parallel to characters, and can help to involve the audience in characters’ actions and discussions.Both camera and subject should travel same rate of speed for best effect.Cool Effect: Have the subject turn the opposite direction of the cameraperson’s track.Use behind the subject the least—it gets boring quickly.
28DollyCamera and/or Tripod moves toward and away from the subject/object.“Dolly in” or “Dolly out”
29TruckCamera and/or Tripod moves left or right from the subject/object.“Truck left” or “Truck right”
30Pedestal Movement Camera and/or tripod moves up or down along the height of the subject/object.Different than a tilt effect, without the angling.
31Rack FocusUtilizing the manual focus to blur and focus between two stationary subjects/objects.Creates interest for character dialogues.
32Hand–Held Not using the tripod. Creates a less stable effect. Can give a “reality” to the footage.Avoid too much bumpiness or you will make the audience sick. “Blair Witch” or “Cloverfield” footage gets old real fast.
33Subject or Character Movement Mise’-En-Scène:Movement within the scene.Character/Subject Movement:Camera does not move – just the character(s)
34Mise’-En-Scène “Putting on stage” Letting the characters move into, within and out of the frame of the camera.Used primarily in action sequences.Camera remains still.
35Character/Subject Movement: Toward the camera: Scare tactic to shock the audience.Away from the camera: Creates closure to the scene