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On farm conservation and in vitro preservation of Citrus local varieties and sustainable utilization in Egypt. Hanaiya El Itriby National Gene Bank and.

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Presentation on theme: "On farm conservation and in vitro preservation of Citrus local varieties and sustainable utilization in Egypt. Hanaiya El Itriby National Gene Bank and."— Presentation transcript:

1 On farm conservation and in vitro preservation of Citrus local varieties and sustainable utilization in Egypt. Hanaiya El Itriby National Gene Bank and Genetic Resources - Egypt The International Treaty’s contribution to cope with the challenge of conserving agro-biodiversity Valenzano (Bari), Italy, December2009 Policy Seminar on the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture: Global Challenges and Future Direction

2 Contents Background. Objectives. Activities. Implementing Institution. Impacts. Conclusion.

3 The Project Proposal is in accordance with Article 6 (f) of ITPGRFA “Supporting, as appropriate, the wider use of diversity of varieties and species in on-farm management, conservation and sustainable use of crops and creating strong links to plant breeding and agricultural development in order to reduce crop vulnerability and genetic erosion, and promote increased world food production compatible with sustainable development” The Project Proposal is in accordance with Article 6 (f) of ITPGRFA “Supporting, as appropriate, the wider use of diversity of varieties and species in on-farm management, conservation and sustainable use of crops and creating strong links to plant breeding and agricultural development in order to reduce crop vulnerability and genetic erosion, and promote increased world food production compatible with sustainable development”

4 BACKGROUND  Citrus species are native to Southeast Asia where they are found wild.  Citron (Citrus medica) has been Known in Egypt since the time of the pharaohs.

5  Citrus is one of the most important fruit crops grown in Egypt.  It represents 31.02% of the total cultivated area of fruits and 37.04% of the total fruit production.  In 2008, approximately 141,358 ha were devoted to citrus, yielding about 3,134,179 MT of citrus fruits.  During the period , the total production of oranges and mandarins was about 88 % of total citrus production in Egypt (FAO STAT data, 2007).

6  The average yield of citrus is 7.49 tons/ha. which is very low compared to world average 18 tons/ha.  The main reasons for the low productivity are inappropriate cultivation practices (old trees, lack of regular pruning, off-type cultivars and graft- transmissible diseases and insect infestation ).  Citrus and Citrus products are a rich source of vitamins, minerals and dietary fiber (non-starch polysaccharides) that are essential for normal growth and development and overall nutritional well-being.  Approximately one third of total citrus production is utilized for processing. The most important processed citrus fruits product is orange juice. In addition to other food products, such as dehydrated citrus products, marmalade and jams.  Citrus by-products for industrial uses includes essential oils which give flavor to drinks and foods, preparation of medicines and soaps, perfumes and other cosmetics, as well as for environmentally friendly home cleaning products.

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8 March seedless Egyptian Blood White Mandarin Kumquat Grapefruit Common orange Shaddock Blood orange Lemon Sweet lime Spring Red Red Khalily Mistikawi Balady Duncan Ruby Red Oval and Round Eureka Lisbon Succari Tanarrif Yellow Banaty Balady Youssef Soliman Abd El-Razik Balady Sonbol

9 Citrus VarietiesArea (Fed.)*Qty (tons)(%) Navel orange122,1221,166, Valencia54,165553, Balady graft17,390161, Balady seed9,01381, Succari9,52487, Khalily3672, Jaffa & Shamutti Youssif Soliman Blood orange Total212,7082, % Mandarin93,346748,39523% Lime & lemon37,692326,27210% Grapefruit3192,3502% Total131,3571,077,01735% * Feddan = 4,200 sq.m. Acre = 4,050 sq.m.

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11 Total orange production in Egypt and total fruit area,2007 World Citrus production 2006 / 2007 FAO STAT data, 2007

12  Conservation of Citrus agrobiodiversity on farm and in vitro with the aim of enhancing its utilization for the economic benefit of small scale farmers and improving citrus production. The Overall Objective: Specific Objectives:  Address the genetic erosion of citrus species.  Establish a comprehensive data base for citrus germplasm.  Identify citrus germplasm adapted to environmental stress conditions to combat climate change as well as other characteristics related to tolerance to biotic stress.

13  Technology transfer to small scale holders on best agricultural practices for management of citrus trees leading to an increase in production and income generation.  Strengthen the ties between the gene bank and other institutions involved in citrus germplasm conservation and utilization to initiate a citrus network.  Provide access to citrus germplasm and its related information under MLS. Duration of the project:  Start of the project : (15 November,2009)  End of the project : (14 October,2011)

14 1.Exploration and collection of local varieties. 2. Characterization, evaluation and documentation of Citrus genetic resources. 3. On farm conservation of Citrus germplasm. 4. In vitro Propagation for medium term preservation and Cryo-preservation (-196 °C) for long term conservation of selected citrus germplasm. 5. Mass production of selected Citrus germplasm. 6. Provide access to citrus germplasm and its information for utilization by breeders and farmers. PROJECT ACTIVITIES

15 Implementing Institution The National Gene Bank of Egypt  The National Gene Bank was established in 2003 within the Agricultural Research Center.  Mandated to exploration, collection, conservation, characterization, evaluation and documentation of genetic resources and making them available for sustainable utilization to public and private institutions in addition to farmers.  Facilitating the exchange of the genetic resources.  Enhancing public awareness of the importance of maintaining genetic resources to protect the national heritage against erosion.  Previous activity of NGB related to citrus germplasm. The characterization of a number of citrus accessions maintained on farm at Horti. Res. Inst. HRI and Fac. of Agric. Banha Univ.

16 PROJECT TEAM  National Gene Bank  Collaborators PI: Pomology Specialist Hossam Abdel Maksoud Ahmed Tissue culture Neveen Abdel-Fattah Ahmed Abd El-Wahab Taxonomist Reda Rizk Molecular Biologist Sameh Heikal Horticulture Research Institute (HRI) Prof. Salama Eid Salem. Faculty of Agriculture, Assuit Univ. Prof. Samir Zaki El-Agamy Faculty of Agriculture, Banha Univ. Prof. Kahled Ibrahim Ali Private sector Mr. Hassan Marei

17 ANTICIPATED IMPACT OF THE PROJECT 1. The Gene Bank will have a well characterized collection of citrus germplasm of local varieties from different ecosystems in Egypt. 2.Increasing citrus production in Egypt, both in quantity and quality, and attaining a competitive edge in exportation, thus realizing a sustainable economic revenue. 3.Increase in the area of citrus grown by farmers with small holdings to supply the increasing demand on citrus products. This will be reflected on their income and wellbeing. 4.Promoting citrus consumption among population, especially the poor, to overcome and prevent micronutrient deficiencies and chronic diseases. 5.An increase in germplasm exchange and utilization to adress environmental changes in different ecosystems due to global climate change.

18  The project will present a module of a participatory approach of on farm conservation of citrus agrobiodiversity. The module could be suitable for application for on farm conservation and sustainable use of other PGR.  Conservation of Citrus germplasm will enable National Gene Bank to provide breeders, researchers, and other institutions with selected citrus germplasm under the SMTA of the international treaty in order to produce new cultivars with higher quality and yield.

19 Sour orange Eureka lemon Tahiti lemon Tahiti lemon Few seeded Balady Few seeded Balady Yousef Soliman orange Yousef Soliman orange Egyptian lime Photographical documentation for fruits of some local varieties.

20 Propagation of local varieties and rootstocks using traditional methods ( grafting or budding)

21 Citrus local varieties in different locations

22 Trees infected with different diseases

23 Hanaiya El-Itriby


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