Presentation on theme: "Bioenergy Biodiversity and Land use Expert meeting on biodiversity standards and strategies for sustainable cultivation of biomass for non-food purposes."— Presentation transcript:
Bioenergy Biodiversity and Land use Expert meeting on biodiversity standards and strategies for sustainable cultivation of biomass for non-food purposes March 2008, Isle of Vilm/Germany Martina Otto Head, Policy Unit, Energy Branch United Nations Environment Programme
Bioenergy trade offs Energy Security Development (energy access, MDGs, rural areas) Climate Change Sustainable Use of Natural Resources Biodiversity provides the basis for ecosystems and the services they provide. between country specific (needs ; country conditions) between the local, national and global agendas basic energy Cooking, heating, lighting Transport fuelproductive energy energy food labour / economic development Biophysical: Climatic conditions, Water availability, Soil quality Current structure and Growth potential Of agricultural sector; Crops, Trade flows Climate change Impacts – Adaptation potential between drivers
Competition for land use… Human settlements Agriculture (food, feed, fibre !) Protected areas / high conservation value areas (biodiversity !) … and ecosystem services Increasing pressure from: Population growth Lifestyle changes / consumption patterns CC
Water stress Source: WRI, 2006
Zoom on agriculture Both cultivated and wild biodiversity provide services necessary for agriculture; livelihoods are directly linked Potential impacts from agriculture on biodiversity through Land use change Soil erosion and degradation Water overuse and contamination Invasive species and GMOs Biofuels – exacerbating the risks or opportunity to spur improvements? recovery of marginal lands prevention of desertification increased efficiency of agriculture (new technologies and fresh investment)
Zoom on energy High level of energy consumption in developed countries Growth in demand in emerging economies Impacts from production and distribution of energy on biodiversity through Fuelwood collection Coal mining Oil and gas extraction, pipelines / shipping (spills) Dams (flooding of biodiversity reach areas) Batteries (production and end of life / waste) Impacts from use of fossil energy: Climate change, which in turn, has an impact on biodiversity Biofuels – an opportunity to reduce impacts or posing new threats?
Need for good planning and management Choice of the area (‘no go areas’, e.g. PA, HCVA; ‘no regrets’, e.g. marginal land) Choice of the crop (adapted to local conditions and needs) Good agricultural practices (water, soil, new technologies, methods serving double purpose) Involvement of local communities (planning, production, use) governments: mmt of natural resources industry: risk management local communities: improvement of livelihoods
Set of rules – RSB principles and criteria 7. Biofuel production should avoid negative impacts on biodiversity and areas of high conservation values a. Identification of the production site (plantations, transformation facilities and other infrastructure). Balanced contribution from producer, according to their financial means, and governments to identify and map HCV areas, native ecosystems, ecological corridors, and other areas of importance. b. No conversion of HCV areas, native ecosystems, ecological corridors and other biological conservation areas. Limited exploitation of such areas under management as long as HCVs are preserved, as well as degraded areas (to be defined and cut off date to e set) c. Avoid or minimize negative impacts on ecosystem functions and services. d. Buffer zones to be set between production sites and surrounding areas. e. Avoid disruption of ecological corridors, even on the production site. f. Good practices: promote the use of degraded land, native species, crop rotation, global landscape management system, no-till practices, green harvesting, etc.
Set of rules – RSB principles and criteria II definitions (HCV areas, marginal / degraded land) indicators implementation protocols capacity building incl. information on crop and pathway requirements and impacts (LCA) financial assistance in developing countries monitoring tools / certification
Indirect land use changes High risk for both biodiversity and climate change – solution through linkage between biodiversity and climate change regimes? Market based mechanisms and financial instruments (more realistic evaluation of biodiversity/ecosystem functions, internalisation of environmental cost, payments for effective management of biodiversity) Risk adder (Fritsche, 2007) REDD GIS monitoring (impacts going beyond the farm level, level of monitoring needs to go beyond the farm level as well)