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BIODIVERSITY AND WILDLIFE TRADE IN VIETNAM M.A Dang Xuan Dao Member of Justice Council Chief Judge of Economic Court The Supreme People’s Court of Vietnam.

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Presentation on theme: "BIODIVERSITY AND WILDLIFE TRADE IN VIETNAM M.A Dang Xuan Dao Member of Justice Council Chief Judge of Economic Court The Supreme People’s Court of Vietnam."— Presentation transcript:

1 BIODIVERSITY AND WILDLIFE TRADE IN VIETNAM M.A Dang Xuan Dao Member of Justice Council Chief Judge of Economic Court The Supreme People’s Court of Vietnam

2 1. SOME MAIN GEOGRAPHICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF VIETNAM -Total land area of km2, extending more than 1650 km from North to South -Coastline spreading over 3260 km with thousands of islands -Typical tropical monsoon climate -An intersection point of fauna and flora in India-Myanmar, South of China and Indo-Malaysia region

3 2. SOME MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF BIODIVERSITY IN VIETNAM -One of the 16 most biologically diverse countries in the world -Species diversity: about species of fauna, species of flora and species of micro-organisms have been recognized -Every year, many new species are discovered. Ex: in the period of , 13 new genera, 222 species, 30 subspecies were discovered.

4 3. BIODIVERSITY DEGRADATION -According to data of Vietnam Red Data Book released on 26 June 2008: the number of threatened wildlife species has increased from 715 in to 882 in 2007, among them 116 fauna species and 45 flora species are classified as “critically endangered”.

5 4. MAJOR CAUSES -Major causes: forest loss, illegal logging, wildlife trade, habitat’s loss and fragmentation, environmental pollution -Figures on wildlife trade in Vietnam: + Annual demand for wildlife used for food, medicines, ornamental purpose and export: – tons (excluding birds and insects) + Annual consumption of tons of wildlife meat

6 5. SOLUTIONS Biodiversity conservation activities: -In-situ conservation + System of nature reserves in Vietnam (national parks, nature reserves, landscape protection areas) -Ex-situ conservation + Experimental forest + Medicinal plant gardens + Seed bank

7 6. Conservation and sustainable development -Sustainable development + Economic development + Social development + Environment protection -Impacts of reserves on sustainable development

8 7. Conservation and climate change -Climate changes -Impacts of climate change to biodiversity conservation -Impacts of system of reserves on climate change -Solutions for biodiversity in the context of climate change

9 8. WILDLIFE TRADE IN VIETNAM – AN OVERVIEW -Began to flourish in the late 80s -Wildlife: exploitation and consumption domestically -Vietnam: a wildlife trading entrepot in the area -Over 147 terrestrial animal species, 40 coleopteron species, 90 butterfly species & hundreds of flora species: consumed and traded

10 8. WILDLIFE TRADE IN VIETNAM – AN OVERVIEW (Cont.) : violations of the regulations on wildlife hunting and trade prosecuted; 635 tons of wildlife made up of a total of animals confiscated -Number of wildlife violations: increasing trend (1.469 cases in 2000 to cases in 2002)

11 9. WILDLIFE VIOLATIONS HEARD BY THE COURTS IN VIETNAM ( ) -08 cases on the destruction of aquatic resource (Article 188, Criminal Code) -680 cases on the destruction of forests (Article 189, Criminal Code) -456 cases on the violation of the regulations on the protection of precious and rare wild animals (Article 190, Criminal Code) -01 case on the violation of special protection of nature reserves

12 10. WILDLIFE TRADE CHAIN -Legal trade: wild harvest, collection and hunting & artificially propagated and captive bred facility -Illegal trade: wild harvest, collectrion and hunting -Vietnam: + supply source + transfer or transit market

13 11. VIETNAM’S WILDLIFE TRADE POLICY -The National Strategy for Environmental Protection until 2010 and vision towards 2020 (2003) -The National Action Plan on strengthening the wildlife trade management towards 2010 (2004) -The National Action Plan on Biodiversity towards 2010 and Vision towards 2020, and the Cartagena Convention on Biological Safety -The Strategy of Forestry Development for the period of (2007)

14 12. LEGAL DOCUMENTS ON WILDLIFE TRADE -Before Vietnam joined CITES: focused primarily on protection or the prevention of illegal hunting and exploit of natural resources -After Vietnam joined CITES (1994): more guidance was provided on the registration and management of captive breeding and artificial propagation enterprises

15 13. IMPLEMENTATION OF WILDLIFE TRADE POLICIES -Implementation of the National Action Plan on strengthening the management of wildlife trade towards Domestic wildlife exploitation and trade -International trade

16 14. CONCLUSION -Framework of policies and laws on wildlife trade: complex and comprehensive -Policy impacts: wide variety of stakeholders in the wildlife trade -Protection of nature: enhanced -Illegal wildlife trade: addressed -Captive breeding & artificial propagation: developed -Appropriate legislation for implementing international conventions

17 15. CONCLUSION (Cont.) Weaknesses of wildlife trade policy -Focus only on protection and law enforcement; development of legal utilization is not given equal attention -Lack of appropriate consultation with and participation of relevant stakeholders limits the policy -Operation of prosecution and punishment mechanism: need to be reevaluated

18 15. RECOMMENDATIONS -Improve and complete current policy to ensure its efficiency and applicability: addressing illegal trade and increasing income and jobs to people -Develop an united policy for wildlife trade management -Reevaluate current policy of selling confiscated wildlife -Develop captive breeding and artificial propagation: development and management -Propaganda and education -International and regional cooperation


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