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DRM Working Group FAO Rome
DISASTER RISK REDUCTION, AGRICULTURE AND FOOD SECURITY: FAO GOOD PRACTICE DRM Working Group FAO Rome
Overview Context Food security and systems in the hazard context
FAO and Climate Risk Management Good Practice Lessons
CONTEXT Increasing populations/urbanization
Increased demand for food and dietary convergence Limited areas to enhance food production Many hazard prone countries are LIFDCs Climate change
FOOD SECURITY Exists when all people at all times have physical or economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active healthy life. Four dimension of food security: Availability, Access, Stability and Utilization This is the definition of food security as agreed upon at the World Food Summit 1996 in Rome
HAZARD IMPACTS ON FOOD SYSTEMS
Food production losses Infrastructure damage Asset losses Increased livelihood risks More food emergencies Health risks The climate impacts of disasters on food systems are various. The most immediate risks arise from triggered extreme events. They already affect food systems adversely, and require immediate response.. Gradual changes in temperature and precipitation require different responses.
How does FAO address DRR?
Development & disaster risk reduction (DRR) Emergency response period Recovery & Rehabilitation Normal economic/social growth pattern Normal economic/social growth pattern Ongoing development activities Risk assessment Mitigation/prevention Warning/ evacuation Recontruction Search & rescue Preparedness Economic/social recovery Re-establish logistic routes Restoration of infrastructural services Major hazard/disaster Coordination For Agriculture climate induced hazard and disasters are of paramount importance. We address the vulnerability of people to disasters within the ovweral context of food security and poverty FAO;s approach to DRR is build on the foundations that we are Addressing and linking all phases of risk management before, during and after extreme events, focusing particularly on hazard and hunger hotspots Linking DRR and CCA and embedding both into sustainable development framework Key messages Linking Short & long term perspectives: Climate risk management is more than managing extreme events; BUT in any case Disaster Risk Management is the first line of risk coping and adaptive action Provide ongoing assistance Emergency initiatives Damage assessment Recovery initiatives DRR initiatives Media response Mainstreaming DRR into ongoing development processes
FAO Technical Support Risk reducing technologies
Sectoral policies and institutions Infrastructure improvement Climate and weather information Emergency response and rehabilitation Livelihoods support, promotion and diversification new crop varieties, farming systems or water management technologies, etc sparing use of water in drought times, reduce energy use improved irrigation and/or forest fire management (water users association) etc.
Policy and local support: DRR and adaptation in agriculture
Local processes of risk reduction and adaptation Policy-based measures ENHANCING CAPACITIES TECHNOLOGICAL INSTITUTIONAL AND BEHAVIOURAL CREATING INCENTIVES FOR DRR and ADAPTATION AT FARM-LEVEL DRR and ADAPTATION MEASURES IMPLEMENTED BY GOVERNMENT modification of farm support services (e.g. seed supply systems for hazard resistant crops) payments for environmental services including soil carbon sequestration in AG modification of crop insurance support Investments in public irrigation infrastructure Programs & funding for research and extension on CCA (technology development/dissemination) etc. Key message: need to act on both levels (local processes plus policies) by institutionalizing support for CBDRM/CBA
DRR/CAA Implementation Stakeholder Engagement
Approach Assess current vulnerability, risks and local livelihoods by agro-ecological zone/socioeconomic setting Assess future climate risks & overlay to current Stakeholder Engagement Enhance inst & technical capacities for adaptation Identify, validate and test adaptation options Design location-specific risk reduction strategies Up-scaling and mainstreaming in annual (sectoral) development plans Guiding principles Building on what already exists Focus on poor & small holders Linking top down & bottom up perspectives linking DRR & CCA; action research Cross-sectoral livelihood perspective AEZ as basis to describe adaptation optionS and guide their replication; equally important is the diffentiation of vulnerable groups within AEZ’- adapttaion option differ by groups/WEALTH. Promoting local options Blending local & scientific knowledge - farmers and national research institutions as key partners Source: FAO-LACC (2008)
GOOD PRACTICE Cuba, Grenada, Haiti and Jamaica
Impact mitigation of climatic hazards in agriculture DRR integrated into sectoral planning in agriculture and livestock sector Pilot interventions at community level Knowledge exchange on DRR among countries Documentation of good practices for local risk reduction in AG: diversified cropping control soil erosion tree management
GOOD PRACTICE - Indonesia: Building back better after the tsunami
Building capacities of local and provincial authorities as well as vulnerable fishing communities to jointly manage coastal fisheries in a sustainable way Model of post-disaster rehabilitation and transition project – demonstrates how development practices can be applied in relief settings and emergency projects Good practice for longer-term sustainable development in fisheries
Lessons Food security perspective: DRR and CCA go together
Address DRR/CCA within broader vulnerability context No single approach or practice: use option menus by AEZ; systematic documentation; farmers take only what benefits; framework conditions may change Push for doing better on known sustainable land and water management practices (no-regret) Cross-sectoral perspective is essential: need to better catalyze sectoral buy-in as partners in DRR/CCA Re-think the role of research: R&D linkages and extension services (for poor) as vehicles for DRR/CCA implementation embedded into ongoing poverty alleviation & development processes
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