2Aqueous Reactions There are several general types: 1) Precipitation: An insoluble salt forms from the addition of solutions. (Refer to Solubility Rules)2) Acid-Base Reactions (Neutralization) generally produces a salt plus water3) Oxidation-Reduction (Redox) there is a change in oxidation numbers between reactants and products
5ElectrolytesAqueous solutions can be categorized into 3 types: non-electrolytes, strong electrolytes or weak electrolytes based on their ability to conduct electricity.A solution must have ions to conduct.Pure Water does not conduct.Aqueous solutions can be tested for conductivity which will determine the degree of ionization of the solutes.It is possible to have full or partial ionization.
6ElectrolytesMolarity (M) = Moles solute / Liter solutionAlmost all ionic compounds and a few molecular compounds are strong electrolytes.Several molecular compounds are weak conductors, most are non-conductors.Conductivity is directly related to the amount of ionization, i.e. ions in solution. Table salt, sodium chloride, is completely ionized:NaCl(s) + H2O(l) NaCl(aq) M Na +(aq) + Cl -(aq) 0.00M M M
7Electrolytes Concentrations: Molarity (M) = Moles solute / Liter solutionConcentrations:CaCl2 (s) + H2O(l) CaCl2(aq) M Ca 2+(aq) + 2 Cl -(aq) 0.00M M M
8Electrolytes C12H22O11 (S) + H2O(l) C12H22O11 (aq) Molarity (M) = Moles solute / Liter solutionSugars like sucrose are non-ionic, molecular compounds that dissolve but produce no ions.C12H22O11 (S) + H2O(l) C12H22O11 (aq)Some molecular compounds like acetic acid ionize partially (dissociate) in waterHC2H3O2 (l) + H2O(l) H3O+(aq) M C2H3O2 -(aq)0.9987M M
9Aqueous AcidsAny compound that provides a proton can be considered an acid. Strong acids are sulfuric acid, nitric acid, perchloric acid, HI, HBr and HCl.
10ElectrolytesHow would the conductivity of acetic acid compare to hydrochloric acid?
12Aqueous Bases NH3 (g) + H2O(l) NH3 (aq) NH4+(aq)+ OH-(aq) Any compound that accepts a proton is a base.The common bases are group IA & IIA metal hydroxide compounds. They are strong bases, dissociating completely in water.An example of a weak base is ammonia.NH3 (g) + H2O(l) NH3 (aq) NH4+(aq)+ OH-(aq)
13An Aqueous Solution of Sodium Hydroxide NH3 in Water
18QUESTIONAn aqueous solution of H2SO4 is added to aqueous Ba(OH)2. The reaction is monitored using a conductivity tester.Predict the correct statement(s).I) Both H2SO4 and Ba(OH)2 are strong electrolytes.II) This is a neutralization reaction.III) This is a precipitation reaction.IV) The light bulb will glow at the neutralization point.A) II B) I and IIC) I, II and III D) I, II, III and IV
20QUESTIONIf an antacid contains Al(OH)3 it will form AlCl3 upon neutralization of stomach acid. How many moles of Cl– ions are in mL of M AlCl3?M0.010 MM0.030 MMolarity (M) = Moles solute / Liter solution
24__ _____ + ____ _____ Al2(CO3)3 QUESTIONGiven the insoluble compound Al2(CO3)3 predict the ions and coefficients that would be necessary to complete the following net ionic equation:__ _____ + ____ _____ Al2(CO3)32 AlCl3 + 3 Na2CO3 also include 6 NaCl on right3 Al CO32–2 Al CO32–2 Al3+ 6 Cl – + 3 CO32– + 6 Na+
25Aqueous Reactions: Precipitation Net Ionic Equations 50mL of a 0.1M solution of sodium sulfate is mixed with 50mL of a 0.2M solution of silver nitrate. What is the result?Molecular Equation:?Na2SO4(aq)+ ?AgNO3(aq)?Ag2SO4(s) + ?NaNO3(aq)1212
32QUESTIONIf you began a reaction with the following ions in solution (all would be written with an (aq) subscript how would you represent the proper final net ionic equation? (Consult a solubility Table.)6Na+ + 2PO43– + 3Fe2+ + 6NO3– 3Na+ + PO43– + Fe2+ + 2NO3– No Reaction6Na+ + 2PO43– + 3Fe2+ + 6NO3– Fe3(PO4)2 (s)+ 6NaNO33Na+ + PO43– + Fe2+ + 2NO3– Fe3(PO4)2 (s)+ 6 Na+ + 6 NO3–2PO43– + 3Fe2+ Fe3(PO4)2 (s)
33Oxidation-Reduction Oxidation is the loss of electrons. Reduction is the gain of electrons.The reactions occur together. One does not occur without the other.The terms are used relative to the change in the oxidation state or oxidation number of the reactant(s).
34Aqueous Reactions: Oxidation - Reduction In the following reaction, identify what is being oxidized and what is being reduced. What is the total number of electrons involved in the process?
37QUESTIONIn a redox reaction, oxidation and reduction must both occur. Which statement provides an accurate premise of redox chemistry?The substance that is oxidized must be the oxidizing agent.The substance that is oxidized must gain electrons.The substance that is oxidized must have a higher oxidation number afterwards.The substance that is oxidized must combine with oxygen.