Presentation on theme: "Reactions in Aqueous Solution Chapter 4. A solution is a homogenous mixture of 2 or more substances The solute is(are) the substance(s) present in the."— Presentation transcript:
A solution is a homogenous mixture of 2 or more substances The solute is(are) the substance(s) present in the smaller amount(s) The solvent is the substance present in the larger amount SolutionSolventSolute Soft drink (l) Air (g) Soft Solder (s) H2OH2O N2N2 Pb Sugar, CO 2 O 2, Ar, CH 4 Sn
An electrolyte is a substance that, when dissolved in water, results in a solution that can conduct electricity. A nonelectrolyte is a substance that, when dissolved, results in a solution that does not conduct electricity. nonelectrolyte weak electrolyte strong electrolyte
Strong Electrolyte – 100% dissociation NaCl (s) Na + (aq) + Cl - (aq) H2OH2O Weak Electrolyte – not completely dissociated CH 3 COOH CH 3 COO - (aq) + H + (aq) Conduct electricity in solution? Cations (+) and Anions (-)
Hydration is the process in which an ion is surrounded by water molecules arranged in a specific manner. H2OH2O
Nonelectrolyte does not conduct electricity? No cations (+) and anions (-) in solution C 6 H 12 O 6 (s) C 6 H 12 O 6 (aq) H2OH2O Strong ElectrolyteWeak ElectrolyteNonelectrolyte HClCH 3 COOH(NH 2 ) 2 CO HNO 3 HFCH 3 OH HClO 4 HNO 2 C 2 H 5 OH NaOHH2OH2OC 12 H 22 O 11 Ionic Compounds
Precipitation Reactions Precipitate – insoluble solid that separates from solution molecular equation ionic equation net ionic equation Pb 2+ + 2NO 3 - + 2Na + + 2I - PbI 2 (s) + 2Na + + 2NO 3 - Na + and NO 3 - are spectator ions PbI 2 Pb(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + 2NaI (aq) PbI 2 (s) + 2NaNO 3 (aq) precipitate Pb 2+ + 2I - PbI 2 (s)
Writing Net Ionic Equations 1.Write the balanced molecular equation. 2.Write the ionic equation showing the strong electrolytes 3.Determine precipitate from solubility rules 4.Cancel the spectator ions on both sides of the ionic equation AgNO 3 (aq) + NaCl (aq) AgCl (s) + NaNO 3 (aq) Ag + + NO 3 - + Na + + Cl - AgCl (s) + Na + + NO 3 - Ag + + Cl - AgCl (s) Write the net ionic equation for the reaction of silver nitrate with sodium chloride.
Solubility Rules for Common Ionic Compounds In water at 25 0 C Soluble CompoundsExceptions Compounds containing alkali metal ions and NH 4 + NO 3 -, HCO 3 -, ClO 3 - Cl -, Br -, I - Halides of Ag +, Hg 2 2+, Pb 2+ SO 4 2- Sulfates of Ag +, Ca 2+, Sr 2+, Ba 2+, Hg 2+, Pb 2+ Insoluble CompoundsExceptions CO 3 2-, PO 4 3-, CrO 4 2-, S 2- Compounds containing alkali metal ions and NH 4 + OH - Compounds containing alkali metal ions and Ba 2+
Acids Have a sour taste. Vinegar owes its taste to acetic acid. Citrus fruits contain citric acid. React with certain metals to produce hydrogen gas. React with carbonates and bicarbonates to produce carbon dioxide gas Have a bitter taste. Feel slippery. Many soaps contain bases. Bases
Arrhenius acid is a substance that produces H + (H 3 O + ) in water Arrhenius base is a substance that produces OH - in water
A Brønsted acid is a proton donor A Brønsted base is a proton acceptor acidbaseacidbase A Brønsted acid must contain at least one ionizable proton!
Monoprotic acids HCl H + + Cl - HNO 3 H + + NO 3 - CH 3 COOH H + + CH 3 COO - Strong electrolyte, strong acid Weak electrolyte, weak acid Diprotic acids H 2 SO 4 H + + HSO 4 - HSO 4 - H + + SO 4 2- Strong electrolyte, strong acid Weak electrolyte, weak acid Triprotic acids H 3 PO 4 H + + H 2 PO 4 - H 2 PO 4 - H + + HPO 4 2- HPO 4 2- H + + PO 4 3- Weak electrolyte, weak acid
Neutralization Reaction acid + base salt + water HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq) NaCl (aq) + H 2 O H + + Cl - + Na + + OH - Na + + Cl - + H 2 O H + + OH - H 2 O
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions (electron transfer reactions) 2Mg (s) + O 2 (g) 2MgO (s) 2Mg 2Mg 2+ + 4e - O 2 + 4e - 2O 2- Oxidation half-reaction (lose e - ) Reduction half-reaction (gain e - ) 2Mg + O 2 + 4e - 2Mg 2+ + 2O 2- + 4e - 2Mg + O 2 2MgO
Zn (s) + CuSO 4 (aq) ZnSO 4 (aq) + Cu (s) Zn is oxidizedZn Zn 2+ + 2e - Cu 2+ is reducedCu 2+ + 2e - Cu Zn is the reducing agent Cu 2+ is the oxidizing agent Copper wire reacts with silver nitrate to form silver metal. What is the oxidizing agent in the reaction? Cu (s) + 2AgNO 3 (aq) Cu(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + 2Ag (s) Cu Cu 2+ + 2e - Ag + + 1e - AgAg + is reducedAg + is the oxidizing agent