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© Copyright 1995-2007 R.J. Rusay Aqueous Reactions Dr. Ron Rusay Fall 2007.

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Presentation on theme: "© Copyright 1995-2007 R.J. Rusay Aqueous Reactions Dr. Ron Rusay Fall 2007."— Presentation transcript:

1 © Copyright R.J. Rusay Aqueous Reactions Dr. Ron Rusay Fall 2007

2 © Copyright R.J. Rusay Aqueous Reactions  There are several general types: 1) Precipitation: An insoluble salt forms from the addition of solutions. (Refer to Solubility Rules) 2) Acid-Base Reactions (Neutralization) generally produces a salt plus water 3) Oxidation-Reduction (Redox) there is a change in oxidation numbers between reactants and products

3 Solution Test Apparatus for Electrolytes

4 © Copyright R.J. Rusay Conductivity

5 Electrolytes  Aqueous solutions can be categorized into 3 types: non-electrolytes, strong electrolytes or weak electrolytes based on their ability to conduct electricity.  A solution must have ions to conduct.  Pure Water does not conduct.  Aqueous solutions can be tested for conductivity which will determine the degree of ionization of the solutes.  It is possible to have full or partial ionization.

6 © Copyright R.J. Rusay Electrolytes  Almost all ionic compounds and a few molecular compounds are strong electrolytes.  Several molecular compounds are weak conductors, most are non-conductors.  Conductivity is directly related to the amount of ionization, i.e. ions in solution. Table salt, sodium chloride, is completely ionized: NaCl (s) + H 2 O (l) ---> NaCl (aq) ---> 0.10MNa + (aq) + Cl - (aq) 0.00M 0.10M 0.10M

7 © Copyright R.J. Rusay Electrolytes � Concentrations: � 2 2 � CaCl 2 (s) + H 2 O (l) ---> CaCl 2(aq) ---> 0.10MCa 2+ (aq) + 2 Cl - (aq) 0.00M 0.10M 0.20M

8 © Copyright R.J. Rusay Electrolytes  Sugars like sucrose are non-ionic, molecular compounds that dissolve but produce no ions. C 12 H 22 O 11 (S) + H 2 O (l) ----> C 12 H 22 O 11 (aq)  Some molecular compounds like acetic acid ionize partially (dissociate) in water HC 2 H 3 O 2 (l) + H 2 O (l) H 3 O + (aq) M C 2 H 3 O 2 - (aq) M0.0013M

9 © Copyright R.J. Rusay Aqueous Acids � Any compound that provides a proton can be considered an acid. Strong acids are sulfuric acid, nitric acid, perchloric acid, HI, HBr and HCl.

10 © Copyright R.J. Rusay Electrolytes � How would the conductivity of acetic acid compare to hydrochloric acid?

11 Figure 4.6 HCl is Completely Ionized Figure 4.8 Acetic Acid (HC 2 H 3 O 2 )

12 © Copyright R.J. Rusay Aqueous Bases  Any compound that accepts a proton is a base.  The common bases are group IA & IIA metal hydroxide compounds. They are strong bases, dissociating completely in water.  An example of a weak base is ammonia. NH 3 (g) + H 2 O (l) NH 3 (aq) NH 4 + (aq) + OH - (aq)

13 Figure 4.7 An Aqueous Solution of Sodium Hydroxide Figure 4.9 The Reaction of NH 3 in Water

14

15 QUESTION

16 © Copyright R.J. Rusay Aqueous Reactions: Neutralization

17 © Copyright R.J. Rusay Aqueous Reactions: Neutralization Net Ionic Equations HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq) ---> NaCl (aq) + H 2 O (l) ___________________________________________________ � � HCl (aq) ---> H + (aq) + Cl - (aq) � � NaOH (aq) ---> Na + (aq) + OH - (aq) � � NaCl (aq) ---> Na + (aq) + Cl - (aq) ________________________________________________ Na + (aq) + OH - (aq) + H + (aq) + Cl - (aq) ---> Na + (aq) + Cl - (aq) + H 2 O (l) _______________________________________________________ H + (aq) + OH - (aq) ---> H 2 O (l)

18 © Copyright R.J. Rusay Aqueous Reactions: Acid-Base

19 QUESTION If an antacid contains Al(OH) 3 it will form AlCl 3 upon neutralization of stomach acid. What would be the molarity of Cl – ions in mL of M AlCl 3 ? M M M M

20 QUESTION

21 Pb(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + NaI (aq)  NaNO 3 (aq) + PbI 2 (s) How do you know the state of the products: (s) vs. (aq)? What type of reaction is it? Double Displacement & Precipitation Write a balanced equation for the reaction. 2 2

22

23 QUESTION Given the insoluble compound Al 2 (CO 3 ) 3 predict the ions and coefficients that would be necessary to complete the following net ionic equation: __ _____ + ____ _____  Al 2 (CO 3 ) AlCl Na 2 CO 3 also include 6 NaCl on right 2.3 Al CO 3 2– 3.2 Al CO 3 2– 4.2 Al 3+ 6 Cl – + 3 CO 3 2– + 6 Na +

24 © Copyright R.J. Rusay Aqueous Reactions: Precipitation Net Ionic Equations  50mL of a 0.1M solution of sodium sulfate is mixed with 50mL of a 0.2M solution of silver nitrate. What is the result?  Molecular Equation: ?Na 2 SO 4(aq) + ?AgNO 3(aq) ---> ?Na 2 SO 4(aq) + ?AgNO 3(aq) ---> ?Ag 2 SO 4(s) + ?NaNO 3(aq)

25 © Copyright R.J. Rusay Aqueous Reactions: Precipitation Net Ionic Equations Na 2 SO 4(aq) + 2 AgNO 3(aq) -->Ag 2 SO 4(s) + 0.1M0.2M 2 NaNO 3(aq) Ionic Reaction (Reactants): Na 2 SO 4(aq)  2 Na + (aq) + SO 4 2- (aq) 2 AgNO 3(aq)  2 Ag + (aq) + 2 NO 3 1- (aq) 2 AgNO 3(aq)  2 Ag + (aq) + 2 NO 3 1- (aq) 2 Na + (aq) + SO 4 2- (aq) + 2 Ag + (aq) + 2 NO 3 1- (aq) 0.2M0.1M0.2M 0.2M 0.2M0.1M0.2M 0.2M

26 © Copyright R.J. Rusay Aqueous Reactions: Precipitation Net Ionic Equations Na 2 SO 4(aq) + 2 AgNO 3(aq) -->Ag 2 SO 4(s) + 0.1M0.2M 2 NaNO 3(aq) Ionic Reaction (Products): 2 NaNO 3(aq)  2 Na + (aq) + 2 NO 3 1- (aq) Ag 2 SO 4(s)  Does not dissolve (ionize) Ag 2 SO 4(s)  Does not dissolve (ionize) 2Na + (aq) + 2NO 3 1- (aq) + Ag 2 SO 4(s) 0.2M 0.2M solid 0.2M 0.2M solid

27 © Copyright R.J. Rusay Aqueous Reactions: Precipitation Net Ionic Equations Na 2 SO 4(aq) + 2 AgNO 3(aq) -->Ag 2 SO 4(s) + 2 NaNO 3(aq) Overall Ionic Reaction: 2Na + (aq) + SO 4 2- (aq) +2Ag + (aq) + 2NO 3 1- (aq)  2Na + (aq) + Ag 2 SO 4(s) + 2NO 3 1- (aq) Net Ionic Equation: (Subtract Spectator Ions) 2Ag + (aq) + SO 4 2- (aq)  Ag 2 SO 4(s) = M Na2SO4 xV Na2SO4 / 1:1 stoichiometry = 0.10M x L/ 1 = mol How many moles?

28 QUESTION

29 Pb(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + NaI (aq)  NaNO 3 (aq) + PbI 2 (s) Write a balanced Net Ionic equation for the reaction. 2 2 Pb 2+ ( aq) + 2 I 1- (aq)  PbI 2 (s) What are the spectator ions in the reaction? 2 Na 1+ ( aq) ; 2 NO 3 1- (aq)

30 QUESTION

31 QUESTION If you began a reaction with the following ions in solution (all would be written with an aq subscript) how would you represent the proper final net ionic equation? (Consult a solubility Table.) 6Na + + 2PO 4 3– + 3Fe NO 3 –  1.3Na + + PO 4 3– + Fe NO 3 –  No Reaction 2.6Na + + 2PO 4 3– + 3Fe NO 3 –  Fe 3 (PO 4 ) 2 (s)+ 6NaNO 3 3.3Na + + PO 4 3– + Fe NO 3 –  Fe 3 (PO 4 ) 2 (s)+ 6 Na NO 3 – 4.2PO 4 3– + 3Fe 2+  Fe 3 (PO 4 ) 2 (s)

32 © Copyright R.J. Rusay Aqueous Reactions: Oxidation - Reduction � In the following reaction, identify what is being oxidized and what is being reduced. What is the total number of electrons involved in the process?

33 © Copyright R.J. Rusay

34 QUESTION In a redox reaction, oxidation and reduction must both occur. Which statement provides an accurate premise of redox chemistry? 1.The substance that is oxidized must be the oxidizing agent. 2.The substance that is oxidized must gain electrons. 3.The substance that is oxidized must have a higher oxidation number afterwards. 4.The substance that is oxidized must combine with oxygen.

35 © Copyright R.J. Rusay


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