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Solutions Solute – what is dissolved Solvent – what the solute is dissolved into. Aqueous solutions have water as the solvent.

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Presentation on theme: "Solutions Solute – what is dissolved Solvent – what the solute is dissolved into. Aqueous solutions have water as the solvent."— Presentation transcript:

1 Solutions Solute – what is dissolved Solvent – what the solute is dissolved into. Aqueous solutions have water as the solvent.

2 Water solubility depends on: Polarity of solute and solvent. Polarity of solute and solvent. Relative attractions of the ions for each other as opposed to the ions attraction for the water molecules Relative attractions of the ions for each other as opposed to the ions attraction for the water molecules

3 Strong electrolytes A solution of a strong electrolyte is able to conduct a current efficiently A solution of a strong electrolyte is able to conduct a current efficiently The ionic substance completely ionizes. Soluble salts, strong acids, strong bases The ionic substance completely ionizes. Soluble salts, strong acids, strong bases

4 Weak Electrolytes Solutions that do not conduct electricity efficiently. Solutions that do not conduct electricity efficiently. Only a small amount of the ionic compound ionizes Insoluble or slightly soluble salts, weak acids or bases Only a small amount of the ionic compound ionizes Insoluble or slightly soluble salts, weak acids or bases

5 Nonelectrolytes Solutions that do not conduct electricity. Solutions that do not conduct electricity. Solute is polar but not ionic so no ions can be produced. Solute is polar but not ionic so no ions can be produced. Molecular compounds in solution. Molecular compounds in solution.

6 Molarity (M) M = moles of solute M = moles of solute liters of solution liters of solution

7 A solution of ethanol is prepared by dissolving 75.0 mL of ethanol (density = 0.79g/mL) in enough water to make mL of solution. What is the molarity of this solution? A solution of ethanol is prepared by dissolving 75.0 mL of ethanol (density = 0.79g/mL) in enough water to make mL of solution. What is the molarity of this solution?

8 Calculate the concentration of all ions present in a solution made from 1.00g of K 2 SO 4 in mL of solution. Calculate the concentration of all ions present in a solution made from 1.00g of K 2 SO 4 in mL of solution.

9 How would you prepare 500 mL of a 0.500M solution of sodium carbonate from the pure solid? How would you prepare 500 mL of a 0.500M solution of sodium carbonate from the pure solid?

10 Dilutions Adding water to a stock or concentrated solution in order to prepare a lower molarity solution. Adding water to a stock or concentrated solution in order to prepare a lower molarity solution. Moles of solute before dilution =moles of solute after dilution Moles of solute before dilution =moles of solute after dilution

11 M=molarity; V=volume M 1 xV 1 = moles of solute before dilution M 1 xV 1 = moles of solute before dilution M 2 xV 2 = moles of solute after dilution M 2 xV 2 = moles of solute after dilution M 1 xV 1 = M 2 xV 2 M 1 xV 1 = M 2 xV 2

12 How would you prepare 250 mL of 6.0M sulfuric acid from concentrated (18M) sulfuric acid? How would you prepare 250 mL of 6.0M sulfuric acid from concentrated (18M) sulfuric acid?

13 Precipitation Reactions When two solutions are mixed an insoluble product is formed. When two solutions are mixed an insoluble product is formed. To predict the product of these reactions solubility rules must be known. To predict the product of these reactions solubility rules must be known. Table 4.1 p. 152 Table 4.1 p. 152

14 Write the balanced molecular, the complete ionic, and the net ionic equations for the following FeSO 4(aq) + KCl (aq) FeSO 4(aq) + KCl (aq) Al(NO 3 ) 3(aq) + Ba(OH) 2(aq) Al(NO 3 ) 3(aq) + Ba(OH) 2(aq) CaCl 2(aq) + Na 2 SO 4(aq) CaCl 2(aq) + Na 2 SO 4(aq) K 2 S (aq) + Ni(NO 3 ) 2(aq K 2 S (aq) + Ni(NO 3 ) 2(aq

15 Solution Stoichiometry Identify reactants and products Identify reactants and products Balance net ionic equation Balance net ionic equation Calculate moles of reactants Calculate moles of reactants Determine limiting reactant Determine limiting reactant Calculate moles of product Calculate moles of product Convert to grams or other unit Convert to grams or other unit

16 What volume of 0.100M Na 3 PO 4 is required to precipitate all the lead(II) ions from mL of 0.250M Pb(NO 3 ) 2 ? What volume of 0.100M Na 3 PO 4 is required to precipitate all the lead(II) ions from mL of 0.250M Pb(NO 3 ) 2 ?

17 What mass of barium sulfate can be produced when mL of a 0.100M solution of barium chloride is mixed with mL of a 0.100M solution of iron(III) sulfate? What mass of barium sulfate can be produced when mL of a 0.100M solution of barium chloride is mixed with mL of a 0.100M solution of iron(III) sulfate?

18 Acid –Base Reactions Acid- proton donor Acid- proton donor Base – proton acceptor Base – proton acceptor Acid + base salt + water Acid + base salt + water Neutralization reaction. Neutralization reaction.

19 Write the balanced molecular, the complete ionic, and the net ionic equations for the following HNO 3(aq) + Al(OH) 3 HNO 3(aq) + Al(OH) 3 HC 2 H 3 O 2(aq) + KOH (aq) HC 2 H 3 O 2(aq) + KOH (aq) Ca(OH) 2(aq) + HCl (aq) Ca(OH) 2(aq) + HCl (aq)

20 Hydrochloric acid (75.0 mL of 0.250M) is added to mLof M Ba(OH) 2 solution. What is the concentration of the excess H + or OH - ions left in solution? Hydrochloric acid (75.0 mL of 0.250M) is added to mLof M Ba(OH) 2 solution. What is the concentration of the excess H + or OH - ions left in solution?

21 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Reactions where one or more electrons are transferred. Reactions where one or more electrons are transferred. The oxidation state or number of an element will change during the reaction. The oxidation state or number of an element will change during the reaction. Rules for assigning oxidation numbers – Table 4.2 p.167 Rules for assigning oxidation numbers – Table 4.2 p.167

22 Species Oxidized - increase in oxidation state, lose electron(s) and act as the reducing agent. Species Oxidized - increase in oxidation state, lose electron(s) and act as the reducing agent. Species Reduced - decrease in oxidation state, gain electron(s) and act as the oxidizing agent. Species Reduced - decrease in oxidation state, gain electron(s) and act as the oxidizing agent.

23 Assign oxidation states to all atoms UO 2 2+ UO 2 2+ As 2 O 3 As 2 O 3 NaBiO 3 NaBiO 3 Cl 2 Cl 2 Mg 2 P 2 O 7 Mg 2 P 2 O 7

24 Specify which of the following are redox reactions, identify the oxidizing agent, the reducing agent, the species being oxidized and the species being reduced Cu (s) + 2Ag + (aq) 2Ag (s) + Cu 2+ (aq) Cu (s) + 2Ag + (aq) 2Ag (s) + Cu 2+ (aq) HCl (g) + NH 3(g) NH 4 Cl (s) HCl (g) + NH 3(g) NH 4 Cl (s) SiCl 4(l) + 2Mg (s) 2MgCl 2(s) + Si (s) SiCl 4(l) + 2Mg (s) 2MgCl 2(s) + Si (s)

25 Balancing Redox Equations Write separate half reactions Write separate half reactions Balance each half reaction Balance each half reaction 1. Elements except H and O 2. Oxygen using water 3. Hydrogen using H + 4. Charge using electrons

26 Balancing Redox Equations Equalize electrons transferred by multiplying half reactions by whole numbers. Equalize electrons transferred by multiplying half reactions by whole numbers. Add half reactions together Add half reactions together If the reaction is in a basic environment neutralize the H + ions with OH - ions. If the reaction is in a basic environment neutralize the H + ions with OH - ions.

27 Balance the following in acid solution Cr 2 O 7(aq) + Cl - (aq) Cr 3+ (aq) + Cl 2(g) Cr 2 O 7(aq) + Cl - (aq) Cr 3+ (aq) + Cl 2(g) Pb (s) +PbO 2(s) +H 2 SO 4(aq) PbSO 4(s) Pb (s) +PbO 2(s) +H 2 SO 4(aq) PbSO 4(s) Mn 2+ (aq) +NaBiO 3(s) Bi 3+ (aq) +MnO 4(aq) Mn 2+ (aq) +NaBiO 3(s) Bi 3+ (aq) +MnO 4(aq)

28 Balance the following in basic solution Cr (s) +CrO 4 2- (aq) Cr(OH) 3(s) Cr (s) +CrO 4 2- (aq) Cr(OH) 3(s) MNO 4 - (aq) + S 2- (aq) MnS (s) + S (s) MNO 4 - (aq) + S 2- (aq) MnS (s) + S (s) CN - (aq) +MnO 4 - (aq) CN - (aq) +MnO 2(s) CN - (aq) +MnO 4 - (aq) CN - (aq) +MnO 2(s)


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