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© Copyright 1995-2002 R.J. Rusay Aqueous Reactions Dr. Ron Rusay Spring 2002.

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Presentation on theme: "© Copyright 1995-2002 R.J. Rusay Aqueous Reactions Dr. Ron Rusay Spring 2002."— Presentation transcript:

1 © Copyright R.J. Rusay Aqueous Reactions Dr. Ron Rusay Spring 2002

2 © Copyright R.J. Rusay Aqueous Reactions  There are several general types: 1) Precipitation: An insoluble salt forms from the addition of solutions. (Refer to Solubility Rules) 2) Acid-Base Reactions (Neutralization) generally produces a salt plus water 3) Oxidation-Reduction (Redox) there is a change in oxidation numbers between reactants and products

3 Solution Test Apparatus for Electrolytes

4 © Copyright R.J. Rusay Electrolytes  Aqueous solutions can be categorized into 3 types: non-electrolytes, strong electrolytes or weak electrolytes based on their ability to conduct electricity.  A solution must have ions to conduct.  Pure Water does not conduct.  Aqueous solutions can be tested for conductivity which will determine the degree of ionization of the solutes.  It is possible to have full or partial ionization.

5 © Copyright R.J. Rusay Electrolytes  Almost all ionic compounds and a few molecular compounds are strong electrolytes.  Several molecular compounds are weak conductors, most are non-conductors.  Conductivity is directly related to the amount of ionization, i.e. ions in solution. Table salt, sodium chloride, is completely ionized: NaCl (s) + H 2 O (l) ---> NaCl (aq) ---> 0.10MNa + (aq) + Cl - (aq) 0.00M 0.10M 0.10M

6 © Copyright R.J. Rusay Electrolytes � Concentrations: � 2 2 � CaCl 2 (s) + H 2 O (l) ---> CaCl 2(aq) ---> 0.10MCa 2+ (aq) + 2 Cl - (aq) 0.00M 0.10M 0.20M

7 © Copyright R.J. Rusay Electrolytes  Sugars like sucrose are non-ionic, molecular compounds that dissolve but produce no ions. C 12 H 22 O 11 (S) + H 2 O (l) ----> C 12 H 22 O 11 (aq)  Some molecular compounds like acetic acid ionize partially (dissociate) in water HC 2 H 3 O 2 (l) + H 2 O (l) H 3 O + (aq) M C 2 H 3 O 2 - (aq) M0.0013M

8 © Copyright R.J. Rusay Aqueous Bases  Any compound that accepts a proton is a base.  The common bases are group IA & IIA metal hydroxide compounds. They are strong bases, dissociating completely in water.  An example of a weak base is ammonia. NH 3 (g) + H 2 O (l) NH 3 (aq) NH 4 + (aq) + OH - (aq)

9 © Copyright R.J. Rusay Aqueous Reactions: Neutralization Net Ionic Equations HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq) ---> NaCl (aq) + H 2 O (l) ___________________________________________________ � � HCl (aq) ---> H + (aq) + Cl - (aq) � � NaOH (aq) ---> Na + (aq) + OH - (aq) � � NaCl (aq) ---> Na + (aq) + Cl - (aq) ________________________________________________ Na + (aq) + OH - (aq) + H + (aq) + Cl - (aq) ---> Na + (aq) + Cl - (aq) + H 2 O (l) _______________________________________________________ H + (aq) + OH - (aq) ---> H 2 O (l)

10 © Copyright R.J. Rusay Aqueous Reactions: Precipitation Net Ionic Equations  50mL of a 0.1M solution of sodium sulfate is mixed with 50mL of a 0.2M solution of silver nitrate. What is the result?  Molecular Equation: ?Na 2 SO 4(aq) + ?AgNO 3(aq) ---> ?Na 2 SO 4(aq) + ?AgNO 3(aq) ---> ?Ag 2 SO 4(s) + ?NaNO 3(aq)

11 © Copyright R.J. Rusay Aqueous Reactions: Precipitation Net Ionic Equations Na 2 SO 4(aq) + 2 AgNO 3(aq) -->Ag 2 SO 4(s) + 0.1M0.2M 2 NaNO 3(aq) Ionic Reaction (Reactants): Na 2 SO 4(aq)  2 Na + (aq) + SO 4 2- (aq) 2 AgNO 3(aq)  2 Ag + (aq) + 2 NO 3 1- (aq) 2 AgNO 3(aq)  2 Ag + (aq) + 2 NO 3 1- (aq) 2 Na + (aq) + SO 4 2- (aq) + 2 Ag + (aq) + 2 NO 3 1- (aq) 0.2M0.1M0.2M 0.2M 0.2M0.1M0.2M 0.2M

12 © Copyright R.J. Rusay Aqueous Reactions: Precipitation Net Ionic Equations Na 2 SO 4(aq) + 2 AgNO 3(aq) -->Ag 2 SO 4(s) + 0.1M0.2M 2 NaNO 3(aq) Ionic Reaction (Products): 2 NaNO 3(aq)  2 Na + (aq) + 2 NO 3 1- (aq) Ag 2 SO 4(s)  Does not dissolve (ionize) Ag 2 SO 4(s)  Does not dissolve (ionize) 2Na + (aq) + 2NO 3 1- (aq) + Ag 2 SO 4(s) 0.2M 0.2M solid 0.2M 0.2M solid

13 © Copyright R.J. Rusay Aqueous Reactions: Precipitation Net Ionic Equations Na 2 SO 4(aq) + 2 AgNO 3(aq) -->Ag 2 SO 4(s) + 2 NaNO 3(aq) Overall Ionic Reaction: 2Na + (aq) + SO 4 2- (aq) +2Ag + (aq) + 2NO 3 1- (aq)  2Na + (aq) + Ag 2 SO 4(s) + 2NO 3 1- (aq) Net Ionic Equation: (Subtract Spectator Ions) 2Ag + (aq) + SO 4 2- (aq)  Ag 2 SO 4(s) = M Na2SO4 xV Na2SO4 / 1:1 stoichiometry = 0.10M x L/ 1 = mol How many moles?


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