2 ReviewThe Treaty of Paris of 1783 ended the Revolutionary War and granted America its independence.Why did we revolt against the British?IndependenceDuring the Revolution, GA and each individual state had their own Congressional meetings to come up with individual state constitutions while the US was making one too. (We discuss this later!)
3 Mood in the Country ~“Tomas Paine said, ‘We have it in our power to begin the world all over again.’ Americans in this time were no longer ruled by a king across the sea, but now they could govern themselves – EX right now, you’re governed by your parents, grandparents, etc. But when you become 18, you will have the power to govern yourself and you have every opportunity to do with life what you please… right now you have choices too. – It was up to these leaders of America to either destroy what people had fought for (the opportunity to be free and choose) or to make America the greatest nation on Earth.Many of these leaders were young~ in their teens or twenties!!
4 GA’s First Constitution About one-third of Georgians remained loyal to Great Britain; they were called ToriesThe Whigs (Patriots) influenced a state constitutionApril 1776 – GA’s Provincial Congress adopted a set of “Rules and Regulations” as a temporary constitution.GA’s Constitution was completed and adopted in Feb. of 1777 in Savannah8 counties were formed.
5 GA’s First Constitution Its preamble stated the main philosophy of their government which was popular sovereignty . They agreed that the government is based on the will of the peopleThe first article (section) of the GA Constitution introduced a new principle called “separation of powers”
6 GA’s First Constitution Separation of powersEstablishing the legislative, executive, and judicial departmentsSeparating the departments makes sure that everyone knows their job and they also can keep each other in check. (Checks and Balances)
7 GA’s First Constitution Problem?Although GA established the three branches in order to help keep government fair, they actually gave the most amount of power to the legislative branch.They made it an unicameral legislature – 1 house, instead of 2 like today to make sure that 1 house doesn’t make and pass laws too hastily or carelessly.The 1 house Legislature that they put in place was called the “House of Assembly” and it was given broad authority to enact laws and appoint officials in the executive and judicial branches.
8 GA’s First Constitiution The Executive branch was given the least amount of powers and authority because of the harsh way that the ROYAL GOVERNERS that ENGLAND put in place treated the people of GA.
9 GA’s First Constitution The governor’s power was limitedExecutive Council (12 legislators) held greatest powerCouncil could overrule the governor’s decisionsJohn Treutlen appointed Georgia’s first governorGeorgia’s 1777 Constitutionchanged in 1789
10 Based on your notes, make a strengths and weaknesses T chart of GA’s Constitution of 1777
11 “T” Chart Georgia Constitution of 1777 StrengthsWeaknessesStill have Legislative BranchThree BranchesThree Branches had separate powersEstablished counties – replaced parishesEstablished local (county) governmentsLegislature Unicameral (one house)Not “Checks and Balances” – No second house in Legislative BranchGovernor served only 1 YearExecutive Branch (Governor) was weak – Couldn’t Veto Laws, grant pardons, “Chief Executive” only by nameLegislative elected council – had power to veto the GovernorThree Branches, but the Legislative was more powerful than the others
13 Articles of Confederation First Constitution of the United States of AmericaServed as a formal basis for a unionRatified (approved) on July 4, 1776Went into effect in January 1781, when ratified by Maryland and VirginiaWritten during Revolution to prevent chaos just in case the Americans defeated the British
14 Articles of Confederation It stated that there would be a strong central government but it didn’t read or was not carried out like thatmany didn’t like that because of the way they felt so oppressed by EnglandPeople felt more allegiance to their state government then the national one.It had a unicameral legislatureIt could not levy (impose) taxes
15 Articles of Confederation It could not regulate trade between the states.After the Revolution, the economy of the nation was not in great shape and states increased taxes on their trades in order to raise money.Problem: States had their own money which was practically worthless.There was no president to carry out the laws
16 Articles of Confederation There wasn’t a court system to handle grievancesNo Bill of RightsEach state had equal representation/vote in Congress regardless of population… This made the Nation more of a Confederation (partnership) of independent and equal states.Most powers remained with the states.
17 “T” Chart Articles of Confederation StrengthsWeaknessesFirst written constitution – Articles of Confederation (Nov. 1777)Had a LegislatureStrong State governmentsWeak central governmentNo Executive or Judicial Branch – no one to enforce laws or hear disputesDid not allow the central (federal) government to levy (impose) taxesWeak Union, feared strong central governmentNo “Checks and Balances”Central Government did not have taxes, so no militaryCentral Government did not print moneyAll power lied with the statesEach state had an equal vote in Congress – regardless of size or population