2 STRUCTURE PRESENT SIMPLE PRESENT CONTINUOUS PAST SIMPLE He reads the newspaperHe reads the newspapersThe newspaper is read (by him)The newspapers are read (by him)PRESENT CONTINUOUSShe’s making teaShe’s making biscuitsTea is being made (by her).Biscuits are being made (by her)PASTSIMPLEPeter bought a new TV.Peter bought 2 T-shirtsA new TV was bought by Peter.Two T-shirts were bought by Peter.PAST CONTINUOUSShe was reading a book.She was reading twobooks.A book was being read (by her)Two books were being read (byher).PRESENT PERFECTJuly has passed the test.July has passed 2 tests.The test has been passed (by July)Two tests have been passed (by J.)PAST PERFECTHe had seen a black cat.He had seen 2 black cats.A black cat had been seen (by him)2 black cats had been seen (by him)
3 STRUCTURE (2) FUTURE SIMPLE FUTURE PERFECT INFINITIVE MODAL VB I will clean my roomI will buy 2 lottery ticketsMy room will be cleaned2 lottery tickets will bebought (by me)FUTURE PERFECTHe will have made hisbed in the morning.He will have cooked 2dishes.His bed will have been made in the morning.2 dishes will have beencooked (by him).CONDITIONAL 1I would eat a sandwich ifI were at home.A sandwich would beeaten (by me) if …CONDITIONAL 2He would have writtenan essay if he had time.An essay would havebeen written (by him) if…INFINITIVEWe have to do the examThe exam has to be doneMODAL VBI should make dinnerHe must have understoodthe problem.Dinner should be made.The problem must havebeen understood.
4 USE To highlight the ACTION instead of the DOER / PERSON: They have shot the policeman! >The policeman has been shot!To place the most important element at the very beginning of the sentence:They offered Harry a good job > A good job was offered to Harry.A huge audience watched the royal wedding > The royal wedding was watched by a huge audience.
5 By + agent By is the correct preposition in the P.V. The door was closed by the headmaster.We can omit /by” + the agent when...We don’t know who does the action:My bag has been stolen. (I don’t know by whom)When the doer is not important:The thief has been arrested. (by the police, obviously)We don’t want to name the doer on purpose:Mario has been kissed many times.
6 Verbs with 2 objects…We may have a DIRECT OBJECT + an INDIRECT OBJECT in the same sentence:Someone sent Jenny a love letter.(IO) (DO)GIVE / LEND / OFFER / PAY / PROMISE / REFUSE / SHOW / SEND / TEACH / TELL ...Examples: 2 POSSIBILITIES:A love letter was sent to Jenny.Jenny was sent a love letter.Helen’s fiance gave her a diamond ring.A diamond ring was given to Helen by her fiance.Helen was given a diamond ring.
7 The Passive with Reporting Verbs… BELIEVE – CONSIDER – EXPECT –KNOW – MEAN –SUPPOSE - THINK1. Marriage is very positive.It is said that marriage is very positive.Marriage is said to be very positive.2. Venice is a romantic city.It is considered that Venice is a romantic city.Venice is considered to be a romantic city.3. People thought that Peter was from Australia.It was thought that Peter was from Australia.Peter was thought to be from Australia.4. People suppose that this film is good.It is supposed that this film is good.This film is supposed to be good.
8 Have / get something done We don’t do the action, but other people do it for us:HAVE / GET + OBJECT + 3rd COLUMNExamples:She’s having / getting her hair cut.I’m having / getting my flat redecorated this summer.Yesterday I had / got my navel pierced.How often do you have /get your car serviced?He might have / get his head shaved.Also for unpleasant situations:Gary had his nose broken in a fight.Have you ever had your passport stolen?I had my ankle twisted during the match.We had our windows broken during the demonstration.