Presentation on theme: "Use of the Passive focus is on the action The Passive voice is used when the focus is on the action. It is not important or not known, however, who or."— Presentation transcript:
Use of the Passive focus is on the action The Passive voice is used when the focus is on the action. It is not important or not known, however, who or what is performing the action.
Example: My bike was stolen.. I do not know who did it 1.In the example above, the focus is on the fact that my bike was stolen. I do not know, h owever, who did it.
more polite 2. Sometimes a statement in passive is more polite than in active voice, as the following example shows: Example: A mistake was made. I do not blame anyone In this case, I focus on the fact that a mistake was made, but I do not blame anyone (e.g. You have made a mistake!!)
Examples (all forms)
Form-. To make the passive we use: subject + be + past participle In passive sentences we can use “by + the agent” to say who or what does the action. We only include the agent when it is important or unusual inform ation.
PRESENT SIMPLE Murderes are usually sentenced to life imprisonment.
PRESENT CONTINUOUS is being held The trial is being held at the moment.
PRESENT PERFECT has been stolen My car has been stolen.
PAST SIMPLE was arrested Jim was arrested last year.
PAST CONTINUOUS was being rebuilt The cinema was being rebuilt when it was set on fire.
PAST PERFECT had been broken We saw that one of the windows had been broken.
FUTURE will be released The prisoner will be released next month. is going to be given The verdict is going to be given tomorrow.
INFINITIVE WITH TO to be imprisoned People used to be imprisoned for stealing bread.
INFINITIVE WITHOUT TO be fined You can be fined for parking on a yellow line.
GERUND being sent He paid a fine to avoid being sent to jail.
Note We do not use the Present Perfect Continuous and P ast Perfect Continuous in the passive: He has/had been being arrested (WRONG!!!)
OTHER PASSIVE STRUCTURES
After certain verbs (e.g. enjoy) we use being + past participle: Everyone enjoys being told they are good at what they do After certain verbs (e.g want) we use to be + past participle: Most of us want to be rewarded in some way. After prepositions we use being+past participle: Every actor dreams of being nominated for an Oscar. After the first/second/last (+noun) we use to be+past participle: The first Academy Awards ceremony to be televised was in 1953.
After have to and used to we use be+past participle: The ceremony had to be postponed in 1993 because of a flood. Newspapers used to be given the winners´names in advance. After modal verbs we use be+past participle: The names wouldn´t be published until afterwards. Note: We can use all modal verbs (can, must, will, could, might, etc)in passive verb forms. He can´t be trusted. All bags must be checked in at reception.
It is said that … He is thought to… This formal structure is used in news reports and on tv with the verbs KNOW, TELL, UNDERSTAND, REPORT, EXPECT SAY and THINK. It makes the information sound MORE IMPERSONAL!
Examples It is said that the company may close. It is thought that prices will go up. The man is said to be in his 40s. He is believed to have left the country.
1. We should clean these windows before tomorrow. 2. The workers gave the boss some flowers. 3. The police followed the thieves into a building. 4. The mechanic can’t fix my car. 5. The neighbour has told us the news. 6. The students painted the walls last year. 7. The old woman feeds the pigeons every day. 8. They will pick up John at this office. 9. She showed the visitors the new house. 10. You shouldn’t throw litter on the ground. 11. The teacher asked the students a very difficult question at the oral exam. 12. First, we have to read the text and then, we have to do the exercises. 13. His parents promised Tom a hundred Euros if he passed the test 14. Did they repair all the windows? 15. The news surprised us all.