Defining relative clauses essential information. EX: The woman who showed the most determination got the job
the relative pronoun must be used when is the subject of the following verb. EX: The letter which/that arrived in September explains your position. But sometimes we can omit the relative pronoum. Ex: The letter (which/that) you received in September explains your position.
Non-Defining relative Clauses Extra information. EX: Peter, who was born in England, is living in Spain. We cannot omit the relative pronoun.
RELATIVE PRONOUN USEEXAMPLE whosubject or object pronoun for people I told you about the woman who lives next door. whenrefers to timeShe told us the moment when she felt fear. whererefers to place They were two days in Australia, where they saw koalas. whichsubject or object pronoun for animals and thingsDo you see the cat which is lying on the roof? whichreferring to a whole sentenceHe couldn’t read which surprised me. whosepossession for people animals and things Do you know the boy whose mother is a nurse? whom object pronoun for people, especially in non-defining relative clauses (in defining relative clauses we colloquially prefer who) I was invited by the professor whom I met at the conference. that subject or object pronoun for people, animals and things in defining relative clauses (who or which are also possible) I don’t like the table that stands in the kitchen. *We cannot use that in non-defining relative clauses.
PREPOSITIONS IN RELATIVE CLAUSES In neutral english we can put prepositions at the end of the sentence. EX: That was the story which the film was based on. In formal english we place the preposition earlier in the sentence. EX: That was the story on which the film was based.
When preposition is earlier in the sentence: that cannot be used, we use which. EX: That’s the research that/which she received the award for. That is the research for which she received the award.
When preposition is earlier in the sentence: Whom must be used as the relative pronoun when the object is a person. EX: she spoke to a professor that/who/whom she is friendly with. She spoke to a professor with whom is friendly.
QUIZ: The computer _______ I bought last week is already broken. That is the place _______ Max works. That fat man is the man for _______ Max works. I really enjoyed the time _______ we went to that Chinese restaurant. Kurt Vonnegut, _______ is one of America's best writers, is also a very good painter.