# 24 Dec 2007 Technology in Language Teaching Instructor: Nguyen Ngoc Vu, M.A. Students: Diem Duyen & Bich Huyen Relative clauses Classification: Classification:

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24 Dec 2007 Technology in Language Teaching Instructor: Nguyen Ngoc Vu, M.A. Students: Diem Duyen & Bich Huyen Relative clauses Classification: Classification: Defining clauses Defining clauses Defining clauses Defining clauses Non-defining clauses Non-defining clauses Non-defining clauses Non-defining clauses Defining clauses vs. non-defining clauses Defining clauses vs. non-defining clauses Similarity Similarity Similarity difference difference difference Relative clauses and prepositions Relative clauses and prepositions Relative clauses and prepositions Relative clauses and prepositions Exercises Exercises Exercises

24 Dec 2007 Technology in Language Teaching Instructor: Nguyen Ngoc Vu, M.A. Students: Diem Duyen & Bich Huyen Defining clauses Examples: Examples: The woman who lives next door is a doctor. The woman who lives next door is a doctor. She works for a company that makes stoves. She works for a company that makes stoves. Click here to listen to these sentences defining clause

24 Dec 2007 Technology in Language Teaching Instructor: Nguyen Ngoc Vu, M.A. Students: Diem Duyen & Bich Huyen Defining clauses Definition: defining clauses are relative clauses where the information is essential Definition: defining clauses are relative clauses where the information is essential  the relative clauses tells you which person or thing (or what kind of person or things) the speaker means. “The woman who lives next door” tells us which woman. “The woman who lives next door” tells us which woman. “A company that makes stoves” tells us which kind of company “A company that makes stoves” tells us which kind of company

24 Dec 2007 Technology in Language Teaching Instructor: Nguyen Ngoc Vu, M.A. Students: Diem Duyen & Bich Huyen Defining clauses Notes: Notes: we do not use comma (,) with these clauses we do not use comma (,) with these clauses Ex: we know a lot of people who live in London. (no comma) Ex: we know a lot of people who live in London. (no comma) You can you “that” instead of “who” or “which”. You can you “that” instead of “who” or “which”. Ex: the man who/that answered the phone told me you were a way. Ex: the man who/that answered the phone told me you were a way. The bus which/that goes to the market runs every half an hour. The bus which/that goes to the market runs every half an hour.

24 Dec 2007 Technology in Language Teaching Instructor: Nguyen Ngoc Vu, M.A. Students: Diem Duyen & Bich Huyen Defining clause You can leave out that/who/which when it if the object. You can leave out that/who/which when it if the object.Examples: We went to the park. We went to the park (which/that) she recommended. He is the person (who/that) I’ve told you about. He is the person (who/that) I’ve told you about. We do not often use “whom” in this type of clause. We do not often use “whom” in this type of clause.

24 Dec 2007 Technology in Language Teaching Instructor: Nguyen Ngoc Vu, M.A. Students: Diem Duyen & Bich Huyen Non-defining clauses Examples: Examples: My brother, who lives next door, is a doctor. My brother, who lives next door, is a doctor. She works for PQT company, which makes stoves. She works for PQT company, which makes stoves. non-defining clause

24 Dec 2007 Technology in Language Teaching Instructor: Nguyen Ngoc Vu, M.A. Students: Diem Duyen & Bich Huyen Non-defining clauses Definition: non-defining clauses are relatives clauses where the information is additional and not essential Definition: non-defining clauses are relatives clauses where the information is additional and not essential  they do not tell you which person or thing the speaker means. We already know which thing or person is meant.

24 Dec 2007 Technology in Language Teaching Instructor: Nguyen Ngoc Vu, M.A. Students: Diem Duyen & Bich Huyen Non-defining clauses Examples: My brother, who lives next door, is a doctor. (additional information about my brother) My brother, who lives next door, is a doctor. (additional information about my brother) She works for PQT company, which makes stoves. (extra information about PQT company) She works for PQT company, which makes stoves. (extra information about PQT company) Click here to listen to these sentences.

24 Dec 2007 Technology in Language Teaching Instructor: Nguyen Ngoc Vu, M.A. Students: Diem Duyen & Bich Huyen Non-defining clauses Notes Notes We use comma (,) with these clauses. We use comma (,) with these clauses.Examples: John, who is a very honest person, is my best friend. John, who is a very honest person, is my best friend. He is my best friend, who is a very honest person. He is my best friend, who is a very honest person.

24 Dec 2007 Technology in Language Teaching Instructor: Nguyen Ngoc Vu, M.A. Students: Diem Duyen & Bich Huyen Non-defining clauses You can not use “that” in non-defining clauses. You can not use “that” in non-defining clauses.Examples: that teacher, who (not that) teacher English very well, is my sister. that teacher, who (not that) teacher English very well, is my sister. This table, which (not that) is made of wood, seems to be expensive. This table, which (not that) is made of wood, seems to be expensive.

24 Dec 2007 Technology in Language Teaching Instructor: Nguyen Ngoc Vu, M.A. Students: Diem Duyen & Bich Huyen Non-defining clauses You can not leave out “who” or “which” You can not leave out “who” or “which” Ex: We went to Le Thi Rieng park Ex: We went to Le Thi Rieng park which she recommended. You can use “whom” when it is the object. You can use “whom” when it is the object. Ex: He met Rose, whom (who) he got married later. Ex: He met Rose, whom (who) he got married later.

24 Dec 2007 Technology in Language Teaching Instructor: Nguyen Ngoc Vu, M.A. Students: Diem Duyen & Bich Huyen Similarities In both types of relative clause: In both types of relative clause: We use “who” for people and “which” for things. We use “who” for people and “which” for things. We can use “whose” and “where” We can use “whose” and “where”

24 Dec 2007 Technology in Language Teaching Instructor: Nguyen Ngoc Vu, M.A. Students: Diem Duyen & Bich Huyen Similarities Examples: Defining clauses: Defining clauses: That man is the person whose daughter gets married to a very rich old man. They went to a park where they can find quiet atmosphere to study. That man is the person whose daughter gets married to a very rich old man. They went to a park where they can find quiet atmosphere to study. Non-defining clauses: Non-defining clauses: My bother, whose daughter married to a very old rich man, is very upset. My bother, whose daughter married to a very old rich man, is very upset. They went to that park, where they can find quiet atmosphere to study. They went to that park, where they can find quiet atmosphere to study.

24 Dec 2007 Technology in Language Teaching Instructor: Nguyen Ngoc Vu, M.A. Students: Diem Duyen & Bich HuyenDifferences Defining clauses Defining clauses We do not use comma with these clauses. We do not use comma with these clauses. We can you “that” instead of “who” or “which”. We can you “that” instead of “who” or “which”. You can leave out that/who/which when it if the object You can leave out that/who/which when it if the object We do not often use “whom” in this type of clause We do not often use “whom” in this type of clause Non-defining clauses. Non-defining clauses. We use comma with these clauses. We use comma with these clauses. You can not use “that” in non-defining clauses You can not use “that” in non-defining clauses You can not leave out “who” or “which” You can not leave out “who” or “which” You can use “whom” when it is the object. You can use “whom” when it is the object. Defining clauses Defining clauses We do not use comma with these clauses. We do not use comma with these clauses. We can you “that” instead of “who” or “which”. We can you “that” instead of “who” or “which”. You can leave out that/who/which when it if the object You can leave out that/who/which when it if the object We do not often use “whom” in this type of clause We do not often use “whom” in this type of clause Non-defining clauses. Non-defining clauses. We use comma with these clauses. We use comma with these clauses. You can not use “that” in non-defining clauses You can not use “that” in non-defining clauses You can not leave out “who” or “which” You can not leave out “who” or “which” You can use “whom” when it is the object. You can use “whom” when it is the object.

24 Dec 2007 Technology in Language Teaching Instructor: Nguyen Ngoc Vu, M.A. Students: Diem Duyen & Bich Huyen Relative clauses and prepositions In relative clauses, a relative pronoun can be the object of a preposition. In relative clauses, a relative pronoun can be the object of a preposition. He is the man about whom I talked last night. He is the man about whom I talked last night. (“whom” if the object of “about”) This is the place at which I was born. This is the place at which I was born. preprel. pron.

24 Dec 2007 Technology in Language Teaching Instructor: Nguyen Ngoc Vu, M.A. Students: Diem Duyen & Bich Huyen Relative clauses and prepositions In speech or in formal writing, we generally put the preposition at the end of the clause, otherwise it may sound very formal or awkward. In speech or in formal writing, we generally put the preposition at the end of the clause, otherwise it may sound very formal or awkward.Examples: He is the man who I talked about last night. He is the man who I talked about last night. He is my father, who I talked about last night. He is my father, who I talked about last night.

24 Dec 2007 Technology in Language Teaching Instructor: Nguyen Ngoc Vu, M.A. Students: Diem Duyen & Bich Huyen Relative clauses and prepositions You can put quantifiers such as all, each, some, several, many or most before of whom and of which to give extra information about the whole or a part of a particular group. You can put quantifiers such as all, each, some, several, many or most before of whom and of which to give extra information about the whole or a part of a particular group. Examples: Examples: I have many friends, most of whom I really love. I have many friends, most of whom I really love. These are the books, some of which I have told you about. These are the books, some of which I have told you about.

24 Dec 2007 Technology in Language Teaching Instructor: Nguyen Ngoc Vu, M.A. Students: Diem Duyen & Bich Huyen Exercises Click here to go to Hot Potatoes practice for relative clauses. Click here to go to Hot Potatoes practice for relative clauses. Click here Click here

24 Dec 2007 Technology in Language Teaching Instructor: Nguyen Ngoc Vu, M.A. Students: Diem Duyen & Bich Huyen That’s the end of our presentation Thank you for listening!

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