Presentation on theme: "DEFINING/NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES Teacher Silvino Sieben 3ª Série - EM."— Presentation transcript:
DEFINING/NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES Teacher Silvino Sieben 3ª Série - EM
DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES We use defining relative clauses to define or identify a thing, person or animal. The following relative pronouns are used in them:
Be careful! 1)In defining relative clauses, that can replace which, who, when, why and whom (except after a preposition). That is the woman who taught me to play the piano. That is the woman that taught me to play the piano. 2) The following relative pronouns can be omitted when they refer to the object of a sentence. The bag (which/that) you lent me was in very bad condition. That’s the girl (who/that) Tim used to go out with. I’ll never forget the day (when/that) I met you! Jack doesn’t know the reason (why/that) I contacted him.
3) Whom is used after prepositions, especially in formal English, to refer to a person who is the object of a relative clause. That’s the man to whom I gave the money. Join the sentences by using relative clauses: 1.I want to see the person. He deals with customer complaints. I want to see the person who/that deals with customer complaints. 2. I can’t think of a remedy. It will soothe your nerves. I can’t think of a remedy which/that will soothe your nerves. 3. Why did you buy a car? It is older than your previous one. Why did you buy a car which is older than your previous one? 4. She couldn’t pick the apples. They were beyond reach. She couldn’t pick the apples which/that were beyond reach.
NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES We use non-defining relative clauses to give extra information about something. They are separated from the rest of the sentence by commas. ıf the extra information is removed, the words that remain form a complete sentence. The following relative pronouns are used in them:
a)Proper nouns: The person who lives above us is an engineer. (defining) Mr. Smith, who lives above us, is an engineer. (non-defining) A country which is by the sea is usually a tourist attraction. (defining) Italy, which is by the sea, is a tourist attraction. (non-defining) b) Nouns with preceding modifiers: A mother who is very permissive with her children doesn’t necessarily make her a good mother. (defining) My mother, who lives in Germany now, was moderately permissive with us. (non- defining) The book which is on the table belongs to me. (defining) That green book, which is on the table, belongs to me. (non-defining)
c) When we use coal, rice, milk, flower, etc. in their general meaning we use non-defining relative clauses: Flowers, which almost everybody likes, need special care to grow. (general-non-defining) The flowers which are sold at that florist’s are usually fresh. (specific-defining) Milk, which is essential for people for all ages, should be boiled well. (general-non-defining) The milk which we get from that dairy is really delicious. (specific-defining) Be careful! Which can also refer to a whole phrase. I can’t swim, which is why I hate boats. Where can sometimes be replaced by in which or which…..in. London is a city where you can do lots of things. London is a city in which you can do a lot of things. London is a city which you can do a lot of things in.
Join the sentences: 1.My classmate Susan doesn’t want to be a doctor. Her parents are both doctors. My classmate Susan, whose parents are both doctors, doesn’t want to be a doctor. 2. My father lives in Germany. You met him yesterday. My father, whom you met yesterday, lives in Germany. 3. My car is beginning to cause trouble. I had saved up for it for two years. My car, which I had saved for for two years, is beginning to cause trouble.