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Complex sentences with relative clauses. Think about it What is a relative clause? Write an example of a relative clause in your notebook. How well do.

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Presentation on theme: "Complex sentences with relative clauses. Think about it What is a relative clause? Write an example of a relative clause in your notebook. How well do."— Presentation transcript:

1 Complex sentences with relative clauses

2 Think about it What is a relative clause? Write an example of a relative clause in your notebook. How well do you know how to use relative clauses? Write down any questions you have in your notebook.

3 What is a relative clause? A relative clause, also called an adjective clause, modifies a noun. A relative clause can modify any noun in the sentence: a subject, an object, or an object of a preposition. A relative clause begins with a relative pronoun (who, whom, whose, which, that, where, when, why). Sometimes the pronoun can be omitted. We will examine these cases later in the lesson. Sometimes commas are required. We will examine these cases later in the lesson.

4 Forming relative clauses: relative pronouns as subjects A relative pronoun can be the subject of the relative clause. The politician is extremely happy. She won by a landslide. The politician who won by a landslide is extremely happy. This relative clause modifies the subject of the main clause.

5 Forming relative clauses: relative pronouns as subjects I saw the driver of the blue van. He caused the accident. I saw the driver of the blue van, who caused the accident. This relative clause modifies the object of the main clause. When the relative pronoun is the subject of the relative clause, use who, which, or that as the pronoun. When the relative pronoun is the subject of the relative clause, it cannot be omitted.

6 Forming relative clauses: relative pronouns as objects A relative pronoun can be the object of the relative clause. The seafood wasnt very good. We ate the seafood last night. The seafood that we ate last night wasnt very good. This relative clause modifies the subject of the main clause.

7 Forming relative clauses: relative pronouns as objects I like Francine very much. I met her at the tennis club last year. I like Francine, whom I met at the tennis club last year, very much. This relative clause modifies the object of the main clause. When the relative pronoun is the object of the relative clause, use who(m), which, that, or omit the pronoun.

8 Forming relative clauses: relative pronouns as objects of prepositions A relative pronoun can be the object of a preposition in the relative clause. The movie won an Academy Award. I was talking to you about the movie. The movie I was talking to you about won an Academy Award. or The movie about which (that) I was talking to you (about) won an Academy Award. This relative clause modifies the subject of the sentence.

9 Forming relative clauses: relative pronouns as objects of prepositions Last Tuesday, Jamie ran into an old friend. She had gone to college with her. Last Tuesday, Jamie ran into an old friend with whom she had gone to college. or Last Tuesday, Jamie ran into an old friend she had gone to college with. This relative clause modifies the object of the main clause.

10 Forming relative clauses: relative pronouns as objects of prepositions When the relative pronoun is the object of a preposition in the relative clause, you have several choices: begin the clause with the preposition + whom/which begin the clause with who, whom, which, or that, and put the preposition at the end of the clause omit the pronoun and put the preposition at the end of the clause.

11 Summary of relative pronouns as subjects, objects, and objects of prepositions relative pronouns as subjects relative pronouns as objects relative pronouns as objects of prepositions who (people) which (things) that (things) do not omit who(m) people which (things) that (things) can be omitted prep + whom/which who(m)…prep which…prep that…prep can be omitted but do not omit prep

12 Levels of formality more formal for subjects who, which for objects whom for objects of prepositions prep + whom/which less formal for subjects that for objects who that omission of pronoun for objects of prepositions who that omission of pronoun

13 Try it yourself! Complete the following sentences with relative clauses: We live in a society that A hero is a person who A dictionary is a book that

14 Model sentences In the model sentences section of your notebook, write three model sentences to help you practice relative clauses : a sentence in which the relative pronoun is the subject of the relative clause a sentence in which the relative pronoun is the object of the relative clause a sentence in which the relative pronoun is the object of a preposition in the relative clause Write more than one possible formation for each sentence. Your relative clauses can modify the subject, object, or object of a preposition in the main clause.

15 Relative clauses with whose The relative pronoun whose shows possession. I know the pharmacist. His wife works for Raytheon. I know the pharmacist whose wife works for Raytheon. This relative clause modifies the object of the sentence. Whose cannot be omitted.

16 Try it yourself! Do Exercise 2, p. 129 Grammar Troublespots.

17 Essential and nonessential relative clauses An essential relative clause limits the meaning of the noun it modifies. It identifies or defines that noun in some way. The man who is standing over there is a famous actor. Which man? The man who is standing over there.

18 Restrictive and non-restrictive relative clauses A non-essential relative clause gives additional or extra information that is not needed to identify the noun. Mr. Stevens, who is standing over there, is the mayor of our town.

19 Restrictive and nonrestrictive relative clauses – pronoun use Do not use the pronoun that in a non- essential relative clause. Use who or which instead. X Mars, that is the fourth planet from the sun, is smaller than Earth. Mars, which is the fourth planet from the sun, is smaller than Earth.

20 Restrictive and nonrestrictive relative clauses – comma use. Use commas to isolate non-essential relative clauses. Do not use commas with essential relative clause. Mars, which is the fourth planet from the sun, is smaller than earth. The planet that has the largest rings is Saturn.

21 Model sentences Write two model sentences of your own: a sentence with an essential relative clause a sentence with a non-essential relative clause. Use the correct pronoun Use commas appropriately

22 Try it yourself! Do ex. 1, p. 128, Grammar Troublespots.

23 Beyond the basics – clauses of time, place & reason When, where, and why can introduce relative clauses after nouns referring to time, place, and reason, as in these examples: They are used in the same way as preposition + which. Do you see a bench where (on which) we can sit down? July 4, 1776 is the day when (on which) the Declaration of Independence was signed. Do you know the reason why (for which) I joined the team?

24 Beyond the basics – modifying a clause Relative clauses beginning with which can modify a clause, not just a noun. Use commas. He always comes late, which really annoys me.

25 Beyond the basics – expressions of quantity Relative clauses may contain an expression of quantity with of (e.g. some of, many of). Use whom, which, and whose in with expressions of quantity. Use commas. The article contained a number of errors, most of which the editor was able to catch. He has three brothers, none of whom have been as successful as he has. We discussed the candidate, one of whose strengths was his experience working with computers.


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