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Relative pronouns relative pronounuseexample whosubject or object pronoun for people I told you about the woman who lives next door. whichsubject or object.

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Presentation on theme: "Relative pronouns relative pronounuseexample whosubject or object pronoun for people I told you about the woman who lives next door. whichsubject or object."— Presentation transcript:

1 Relative pronouns relative pronounuseexample whosubject or object pronoun for people I told you about the woman who lives next door. whichsubject or object pronoun for animals and things Do you see the cat which is lying on the roof? whichreferring to a whole sentenceHe couldn’t read which surprised me. thatsubject or object pronoun for people, animals and things in defining relative clauses (who or which are also possible) I don’t like the table that stands in the kitchen. whosepossession for people animals and things Do you know the boy whose mother is a nurse? whomobject pronoun for people, especially in non-defining relative clauses (in defining relative clauses we colloquially prefer who) I was invited by the professor whom I met at the conference.

2 Subject Pronoun or Object Pronoun? Subject and object pronouns cannot be distinguished by their forms - who, which, that are used for subject and object pronouns. You can, however, distinguish them as follows: If the relative pronoun is followed by a verb, the relative pronoun is a subject pronoun. Subject pronouns must always be used. … the apple which is lying on the table If the relative pronoun is not followed by a verb (but by a noun or pronoun), the relative pronoun is an object pronoun. Object pronouns can be dropped in defining relative clauses, which are then called Contact Clauses. … the apple (which) George lay on the table

3 SubjectObject 1.Do you know the girl who I danced with? 2.Do you know the girl who danced with me? 3.The apples that are lying on the table are bad. 4.The apples that we bought in the shop are bad. 5.We will stay at a hotel which is not far from the beach. 6.We will stay at a hotel which my friend has recommended to us. 7.That is a museum which I like very much. 8.That is a museum which lies in the heart of the town. 9.This is the man who Barbara visited in Scotland. 10.This is the man who lives in Scotland. Subject Pronoun or Object Pronoun?

4 SubjectObject 1.Do you know the girl who I danced with? 2.Do you know the girl who danced with me? 3.The apples that are lying on the table are bad. 4.The apples that we bought in the shop are bad. 5.We will stay at a hotel which is not far from the beach. 6.We will stay at a hotel which my friend has recommended to us. 7.That is a museum which I like very much. 8.That is a museum which lies in the heart of the town. 9.This is the man who Barbara visited in Scotland. 10.This is the man who lives in Scotland. XXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXX Subject Pronoun or Object Pronoun?

5 Relative Adverbs A relative adverb can be used instead of a relative pronoun plus preposition. This often makes the sentence easier to understand. This is the shop in which I bought my bike. → This is the shop where I bought my bike. relative adverb meaninguseexample whenin/on whichrefers to a time expressionthe day when we met him wherein/at whichrefers to a placethe place where we met him whyfor whichrefers to a reasonthe reason why we met him

6 Non-Defining Relative Clauses Non-defining relative clauses (also called non-identifying relative clauses or non-restrictive relative clauses) give additional information on something, but do not define it. Non-defining relative clauses are put in commas. Imagine, Tom is in a room with only one girl. The two are talking to each other and you ask somebody whether he knows this girl. Here the relative clause is non-defining because in this situation it is obvious which girl you mean. Do you know the girl, who is talking to Tom? Note: In non-defining relative clauses, who/which may not be replaced with that. Object pronouns in non-defining relative clauses must be used. Jim, who/whom we met yesterday, is very nice.

7 Which sentence has some extra information which could be omitted, and the sentence would still make sense? The house, which has a large garden, was just what they had always wanted. The house which I like best is the small one. Non-Defining Relative Clauses

8 Where should commas be inserted in theses sentences? 1.The hotel where we stayed was very noisy. 2.Mrs Black whose daughter goes to my school has just won the lottery. 3.People who earn a lot of money should pay higher taxes. 4.The giant panda which lives mainly in China is in danger of extinction. 5.The author whose book you’re reading has just won a prize. 6.My sister who’s a doctor is arriving tonight. 7.Buckingham Palace where the Queen lives is now open to the public. 8.Windscreen wipers are things which you switch on when you’re driving in the rain.

9 Where should commas be inserted in theses sentences? 1.The hotel where we stayed was very noisy. 2.Mrs Black, whose daughter goes to my school, has just won the lottery. 3.People who earn a lot of money should pay higher taxes. 4.The giant panda, which lives mainly in China, is in danger of extinction. 5.The author whose book you’re reading has just won a prize. 6.My sister, who’s a doctor, is arriving tonight. 7.Buckingham Palace, where the Queen lives, is now open to the public. 8.Windscreen wipers are things which you switch on when you’re driving in the rain.

10 How to Shorten Relative Clauses Relative clauses with who, which, that as subject pronoun can be replaced with a participle. This makes the sentence shorter and easier to understand.participle I told you about the woman who lives next door. I told you about the woman living next door. Do you see the cat which is lying on the roof? Do you see the cat lying on the roof?

11 Necessary or unnecessary? 1.A calendar is something which tells you the date. 2.Strikers are soccer players who try to score goals for their team. 3.Jane is a person who everybody likes. 4.A stamp is something which you put on a letter if you want to send it. 5.The Thames is a river which runs through London. 6.Cheese is food which mice like eating. 7.A racket is something which you use to hit a ball when you play tennis or badminton. 8.Socks are things which you wear on your feet. 9.A guide is a person who shows tourists around a place. 10.Love is a feeling which nobody can describe.

12 Give a definition to these words using a relative clause 1.A library is … 2.A butterfly is … 3.A waiter is … 4.Night is… 5.A bricklayer is… 6.A dictionary is… 7.A pickpocket is… 8.A carnivore is… 9.A synonym is… 10.Spring is…

13 Give a definition to these words using a relative clause 1.A library is a building where you can borrow books. 2.A butterfly an insect which has colourful wings. 3.A waiter is a man who serves drinks and food in a restaurant. 4.Night is the time of a day when it is dark outside. 5.A bricklayer is a person who builds houses. 6.A dictionary is a book where you can look up words in another language. 7.A pickpocket is a person who steals purses from pockets and bags 8.A carnivore is an animal which lives on meat. 9.A synonym is a word which has the same meaning as another word. 10.Spring is the season of the year when plants begin to grow.


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