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By Andy, Jae, Jay, Suzie, Jee Min

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1 By Andy, Jae, Jay, Suzie, Jee Min
Typhoid Fever By Andy, Jae, Jay, Suzie, Jee Min

2 Causes An acute illness associated with fever caused by the Salmonella typhi bacteria Also caused by the Salmonella paratyphi, a related bacterium that usually causes a less severe illness Bacteria are deposited in water or food by a human carrier and then spread to other people in the area

3 Contracted by the ingestion of the bacteria in contaminated food or water
Bacteria multiplies in the gallbladder, bile ducts, or liver and passes into the bowel Bacteria is only able to survive for weeks in water or dried sewage Infection is the most common cause

4 Symptoms No symptoms - if only a mild exposure; some people become "carriers” of typhoid.  List of symptoms that may occur: Fever Headache Constipation Malaise- a condition of general bodily weakness or discomfort, often marking the onset of a disease. Chills Sore throat Myalgia- pain in the muscles Mild vomiting Abdominal pain-upper body pain. Abdominal tenderness- upper body becomes more sensitive Transient skin rash (rose spots) - usually on abdomen or chest Abdominal rash- rash on upper body Chest rash- Loss of appetite Nosebleeds Joint pains Stepladder temperature - rise in temperature occurring in steps High fever Tongue changes Thirst Diarrhea Blood in diarrhea Slow heartbeat

5 Splenomegaly- enlargement of the spleen.
Enlarged liver Liver symptoms Bradycardia- a slow heartbeat rate, usually less than 60 beats per minute. Delirium- a type of temporary disorder of the mental faculties, as in fevers, disturbances of consciousness, or intoxication, characterized by restlessness, excitement, delusions, hallucinations, etc. Leukopenia- a decrease in the number of white blood cells in the blood. Anemia- A lack of red blood cells and vitality Blood changes Proteinuria- the presence of abnormally large amounts of protein in the urine. Constipation High fever Headache Loss of appetite Fatigue Abdominal pain Diarrhea  Symptoms generally appear one to three weeks after exposure. The danger of Typhoid Fever does not disappear after the symptoms disappear.

6 Transmission A person with typhoid fever carries the bacteria in their blood stream and intestinal region Bacteria may continue to be present in the form of asymptomatic “carriers”, who are people who have recovered from the symptoms of the disease but continue to carry the bacteria in their body Once the bacteria is consumed, it multiplies and spreads into the bloodstream Can get typhoid fever if you eat food or drink beverages that have been handled by a person who is shedding “Salmonelle Typhi” / typhoid fever OR if sewage is contaminated with S.Typhi bacteria, and is transferred in to the water you use for drinking or washing food

7 OR is passed from person to person through poor hygiene, such as incomplete or no hand washing after using the toilet OR bacteria is passed into the stool of urine of infected patients OR from people who are carriers of the disease who handles food can be the source of epidemic spread of typhoid typhoid fever is more common in areas of the world where hand washing is less frequent and water is likely is likely to be contaminated with sewage most patients who contract typhoid fever have recently returned from travel to another country where typhoid is more common; including Mexico, Peru, Chile, India, and Pakistan

8 Locations Common world wide
Occurs especially more at Asia, Africa, and Latin America Less serious in industrialized regions United Sates Canada Western Europe Australia Japan

9 Prevention Keeping hygiene Carefully preparing food Washing hands
Prevent human feces and/or urine from contacting food/drinking water Stay away from such environments Receiving vaccines recommended by the World Health Organization

10 Treatment Antibiotics reduce the probability of death
Drops the probability from 10~30% to 1%

11 Thank you~

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