2 Background “Hepatitis” means inflammation of the liver It’s caused by the viruses A,B,C,D,E, alcohol and drug abuse, and autoimmune disordersIt can go away on its own, but if left untreated, it leads to scarring of the liverIt can be infectious and noninfectiousAbout 4.4 million Americans have hepatitis, but most aren’t aware of it
3 Symptoms For all types of hepatitis, A-E, early symptoms include: DiarrheaFatigueLoss of appetiteFeverMuscle/joint achesNauseaMild abdominal painVomitingWeight lossIf allowed to progress, symptoms grow to include:Circulation problems (drug/toxin induced)Dark urineDizziness (toxic drug)Drowsiness (toxic drug)Enlarged spleen (alcohol)Headache (toxic drug)Itchy skinLight colored, feces containing pusJaundice (yellow skin)
4 Hepatitis A (infectious/short incubation) Highly contagiousCaused by infection with the hep A virus (HAV) through:Fecal-oral routeContaminated food or waterLasts for about 28 days in the bodyReplicates in liverShed out in feces in high concentrationsDoes not develop into chronic infection or liver diseasePreventable with vaccineDiagnosis: detection of hep A antibody through blood testTreatment: no specific treatment; the body clears it on its own but the patient should avoid drugs and alcohol to allow the liver to heal
5 Hepatitis B (Serum/long-incubation) Caused by presence of hep B virus (HBV) from:Exchange of contaminated blood, human secretions, and fecesAlso transmitted sexually and during pregnancyIncubation period lasts around 6 weeks-6 monthsCan be self-limited or chronicPreventable with vaccineDiagnosis: blood tests to examine specific antigens/ liver biopsyTreatment: the patient should eat a diet rich in proteins and carbs to repair damaged liver cells; may also be prescribed interferon
6 Hepatitis C Most chronic bloodborne disease in U.S Transmitted through blood donationsHCV is detectable in blood 1-3 weeks after exposureChronically ill patients may experience active liver diseaseSome people who are infected may not feel the affects of the disease but they are still susceptible to other chronic liver diseasesDiagnosis: blood tests/ liver biopsyTreatment: Patient may be prescribed pegylated interferon and ribavirin.
7 Hepatitis D (Delta Hepatitis) Caused by HDV which requires presence of HBV surface antigens to replicateOccurs only in people already infected with hepatitis BTransmitted through percutaneous/mucosal contact with infected bloodNo vaccine exists but a hep B vaccine will prevent itThere is no known treatment
8 Hepatitis ESpecifically occurs in patients who have travelled to epidemic areasNot common in USMore common in young adults and more severe in pregnant womenShed in fecesCaused by ingestion of fecal matterDoes not lead to chronic infectionThere are no vaccines yet and no treatments
9 SOurces"Hepatitis." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 17 Sept Web. 14 May 2013. "What Is Hepatitis? Symptoms, Causes and Treatments." Medical News Today. MediLexicon International, 13 Apr Web. 14 May 2013.Staff, Mayo Clinic. "Hepatitis." Mayo Clinic. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 01 Sept Web. 14 May 2013.Diseases. Springhouse, PA: Springhouse, Print.