Presentation on theme: "Infectious diseases Diseases resulting from the infectioninfection."— Presentation transcript:
Infectious diseases Diseases resulting from the infectioninfection
Infection is the invasion of body tissues by disease-causing microorganisms, like viruses, bacteria, fungi, etc. source of infection patient route of infection susceptible host People AIR TOUCH INJECTION (BLOOD)
Influenza Influenza is a viral infection that affects mainly the nose, throat, bronchi and, occasionally, lungs. Infection usually lasts for about a week, and is characterized by sudden onset of high fever, aching muscles, headache and severe malaise, non-productive cough, sore throat and rhinitis.
Influenza The virus is transmitted easily from person to person via droplets and small particles produced when infected people cough or sneeze. Influenza tends to spread rapidly in seasonal epidemics.
Influenza Most infected people recover within one to two weeks without requiring medical treatment. However, in the very young, the elderly, and those with other serious medical conditions, infection can lead to severe complications of the underlying condition, pneumonia and death.
Influenza Prevention: Vaccination:Vaccination against influenza with an influenza vaccine is often recommended for high-risk groups, such as children and the elderly, or in people who have asthma, diabetes, heart disease, or are immuno-compromised. Infection control: avoiding close contact with sick people; and staying home yourself if you are sick. good personal health habits :not touching nose or mouth; frequent hand washing. During influenza pandemics, it is better not go to public gatherings place.
Influenza Treatment People with the flu are advised to get plenty of rest, drink plenty of liquids, avoid using alcohol and tobacco and, if necessary, take medications such as acetaminophen (paracetamol) to relieve the fever and muscle aches associated with the flu.
Typhoid fever Typhoid fever is an infection that causes diarrhea and a rash -- most commonly due to a type of bacteria called Salmonella typhi.rash Symptoms usually develop 1–3 weeks after exposure, and may be mild or severe. They include high fever, malaise, headache, diarrhea, rose-coloured spots on the chest, and enlarged spleen and liver.
Typhoid fever Tests Used to Reach a Typhoid Fever Diagnosis blood, bone marrow, and/or stool tests that look for the presence of the bacteria that cause typhoid fever (Salmonella typhi) and with the Widal test positive. Prevention: Typhoid does not affect animals and therefore transmission is only from human to human. Typhoid can only spread in environments where human feces or urine are able to come into contact with food or drinking water. Careful food preparation and washing of hands are crucial to preventing typhoid.
Typhoid fever Treatment: When untreated, typhoid fever persists for three weeks to a month. Death occurs in between 10% and 30% of untreated cases. Treatment of the disease with antibiotics reduces the length of the fever to 3-5days and reduces the chance to death to approximately 1%.
Bacillary dysentery Bacillary Dysentery is an infection caused by species of bacteria Shigella. It characterized by inflammation of the colon wall, low-grade fever and frequent loose stools, cramping abdominal pain, appearance of mucus, blood and pus in the feces.
Bacillary dysentery Diagnosis: Fresh stool is collected and sent for bacterial culture. Prevention: Frequent hand washing.Infected people Should not prepare food for other. There is no vaccine.
Bacillary dysentery Treatment: Dysentery is initially managed by maintaining fluid intake using oral rehydration therapy. If this treatment cannot be adequately maintained due to vomiting or the profuseness of diarrhea, hospital admission may be required for intravenous fluid replacement.
Cholera Cholera is an infection in the small intestine caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. The main symptoms are profuse, watery diarrhea and vomiting. Transmission occurs primarily by drinking water or eating food that has been contaminated by the feces of an infected person, including one with no apparent symptoms.
Cholera Symptoms: The primary symptoms of cholera are profuse, painless diarrhea and vomiting of clear fluid. These symptoms usually start suddenly, one to five days after infect of the bacteria. Diagnosis: a stool sample is sent for bacterial culture.
Cholera Prevention: vaccines for cholera are available, but they provide only partial protection for a limited time. Cholera has been very rare in industrialized nations for the last 100 years; however, the disease is still common today in other parts of the world, including the Indian and Africa. All travelers to areas where cholera has occurred should observe the following recommendations: Drink only water that you have boiled. Eat only foods that have been thoroughly cooked Make sure all vegetables are cooked -- avoid salads. Avoid foods and beverages from street vendors.
Cholera Treatment: When cholera occurs in an unprepared community, case-fatality rates may be as high as 50%. Cholera can be simply and successfully treated by immediate replacement of the fluid and salts lost through diarrhea. Patients can be treated with oral rehydration solution in large amounts. During an epidemic, 80-90% of diarrhea patients can be treated by oral rehydration alone, but patients who become severely dehydrated must be given intravenous fluids. With prompt rehydration, fewer than 1% of cholera patients die.