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A Troubled Germany Economic despair & political instability Punishments of Treaty of Versailles High inflation = German “mark” has no value Failure of.

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Presentation on theme: "A Troubled Germany Economic despair & political instability Punishments of Treaty of Versailles High inflation = German “mark” has no value Failure of."— Presentation transcript:

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2 A Troubled Germany Economic despair & political instability Punishments of Treaty of Versailles High inflation = German “mark” has no value Failure of Weimar Republic (Gustov Streseman) People blame them for Treaty of Versailles Other European nations suffering the same

3 German children play with stacks of money

4 Flag of Weimar Republic

5 US Response Stay out of League of Nations WWI a mistake Isolationism popular Insistent of payment of war debts US relief agencies help out 1924 Dawes Plan fails Negotiated 1925 Kellogg-Briand Pact

6 Adolph Hitler (early years) Born April 20, 1889 in Austria Abusive father, early failures (school, art, etc.) Finds niche in WWI After war moves to Munich becomes Nationalist

7 Adolph Hitler

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9 Review 1.Factors that gave rise to dictators in Europe and Asia 1930s? - Conditions of Treaty of Versailles - Economic Crisis “Great Depression” - Political instability - Weak League of Nations - Failure of international agreements - Social unrest

10 Review 2.Who Rises to Power in each of the following? Russia = Joseph Stalin Italy = Benito Mussolini Germany = Adolph Hitler Japan = Emperor Horhito & Hideki Tojo Spain = Francisco Franco

11 Review 3.Characteristics of Totalitarianism? - Dictators with total power - One Party Rule - Importance of State over Individual (Nationalism) - State control of most aspects of life (limited freedoms) - Common enemy created (racism) - Military conquest and expansionism (to gain approval) - Scare tactics (to unify and eliminate dissent)

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14 Hitler & the Nazi Party 1921 joins the National Socialist German Workers Party Is outspoken against the Weimar Republic and Treaty of Versailles, popularity grows 1923 leads an attempted coup – crushed an thrown in jail – The “Beer Hall Putsch”

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18 Mein Kampf “My Struggle” Main ideas stated in “Mein Kampf” – States political views – German “Aryan” race superior – Blamed Jews for economic problems and WWI – Attacked USSR (obstacle of expansion) – Lebensraum “German living space”

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20 Rudolf Hess typed Mein Kampf

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24 Hitler becomes dictator 1924 released from prison – rebuild Socialist party (NAZI party) excellent speaker, good politician, appealed to peasants, workers, middle class ’28-’32 NAZI’s voted into a lot of seats in Reichstag Hitler named Chancellor on Jan. 30, 1933 by President Paul von Hindenburg

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26 Paul von Hindenburg

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28 Hitler uses “shady” politics strengthen party and gain support Feb 27, ‘33 Suspicious burning of a Reichstag building, blamed on communists Leads to Enabling Bill which gave Hitler dictatorial powers Hitler has no intention of following rules of democracy

29 Aug. 2, 1934 Hindenburg dies, Hitler combines the presidency and the chancellor – calls himself “Der Fuhrer” Birth of 3 rd Reich – Hitler takes control of all aspects of govt, outlaws opposition, and censors media Creates Fascist State (Nazism) Gestapo (led by Herman Goering) and S.A. (led by Ernst Roehm) Night of Long Knives – June 30, 1934 (scares people into obedience)

30 Night of Long Knives

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32 NAZI Flag “Swastika”

33 A cross with 4 bent arms all at a right angle From the Sanskrit word, means “Creating a well being”. Ancient Aryan symbol for the sun

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37 Hermann Goering

38 Ernst Roehm & Heinrich Himmler

39 Head of SS Leibstandarte (Body Guards to Hitler) – Josef “Sepp” Dietrich

40 Albert Speer, Nazi minister of Armaments

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44 Anti-Semitic Policies Jew expelled from govt, teaching, medicine, & law Nuremberg Laws 1935 – Took away Jewish citizenship – Banned marriages – Jews must wear “star of David” – Jews re-located to Ghettos

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48 Hitler Youth Hitler Youth established “Pimpf” Anti-Semitic propaganda (Josef Goebbles)

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50 Hitler Youth

51 Jews forced to wear Star of David

52 Joseph Goebbels

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54 NAZI propaganda

55 Holocaust Begins 1933 Dachau – 1 st Concentration Camps April 1, 1933 Day of “Boycott” Nov. 7, 1938 “Kristallnacht” (night of broken glass) – SS goes on rampage – 15 hours, over 200 synagogues destroyed, 7,500 stores looted, over 100 Jew killed, more than 30,000 arrested and put in prison camps

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59 Kristallnacht

60 Damage of Kristallnacht

61 5/21 Warm Up 1.What was the significance of June 30 th, 1934 to Hitler? 2.What ultimately was the goal of the first phase of the Holocaust? 3.What were some ways in which the first phase of the Holocaust was carried out? 4.What is the greater significance of November 8-9 th, 1938?

62 People rally behind Hitler Promises, economic recovery, territorial expansion, domestic strength Rebuild military, employs thousands of workers, build housing, highways, sports arenas ‘36 Olympics (world’s eyes on Germany) By late 30s strength and determination clear US does not respond, focus is on “New Deal”

63 Hitler & Nazi’s

64 USA Time magazine “Man of the Year” 1939

65 Nuremburg Rallies

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68 Turmoil in Italy Same economic & political issues as Germany Benito Mussolini forms Fascist Party (WWI vets) Goal: unite Italians using reminders of ancient Rome (nationalism and military sacrifice) Hated democracy (destroys unity of state) 1922 Mussolini defends capital from communist takeover, becomes Prime Minister Aggressive foreign policy, invades Ethiopia 1935

69 Benito Mussolini

70 Spanish Civil War 1930’s Francisco Franco & Nationalist Party vs. Republicans Mussolini and Hitler help Franco League of Nations helps Republicans USA Neutral (military not important 15 th largest, de-militarization) Ends in 1939 Franco wins Rome-Berlin Axis forms

71 Francisco Franco

72 Rome-Berlin Axis

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76 Heidki Tojo

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79 Militarism in Japan Tojo supported by Germany and Italy = Rome- Berlin-Tokyo Axis is formed July 7 th, 1937 full blown war with China (Beginning WWII in Asia) US response = FDR’s “Quarantine Speech” 1937

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81 Joseph Stalin Communism1921/Soviet Union Communism  Spread Communism throughout the world dictators Stalin maneuvered himself into becoming the leader of the Soviet Union. The Russian Revolution NO BILL OF RIGHTS”The Russian Revolution was led by the people to overthrow a monarch but when the new ruling class took over, there were no protections of people’s rights…… “NO BILL OF RIGHTS” Communism and fascismCommunism and fascism are similar in their ideologies

82 Stalin’s Soviet Union Stalin’s Economic Plans Stalin’s state takeover of farmland resulted in a dramatic fall in agricultural production as well as mass starvation. Stalin poured money and labor into industrialization rather than basic necessities such as housing and clothing. Due to Stalin’s policies, the Soviet Union soon became a modern industrial power, although one with a low standard of living. Stalin’s Reign of Terror purgesTo eliminate opposition, Stalin began a series of purges, the removal of enemies and undesirable individuals from positions of power. Stalin’s purges extended to all levels of society. Millions were either executed or sent to forced labor camps. Nearly all of those purged by Stalin were innocent. However, these purges successfully eliminated all threats to Stalin’s power.

83 Rise of Stalin Communist Party Collectivization of USSR Eliminate private enterprise and property 5 Year Plans (to modernize) Police state – purges – totalitarian government

84 Joseph Stalin


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