2Contents of the U.S. Constitution The PreambleArticle 1: The Congress (Senate and House of Rep)Article 2: The Executive (President)Article 3: The Judiciary (Supreme Ct. and Lower Cts.)Article 4: The StatesArticle 5: Process to Amend the ConstitutionArticle 6: Constitution is Supreme Law of the LandArticle 7: Process to Ratify this ConstitutionAmendments 1-10 (Bill of Rights)Amendments 11-2710 Pages27 Amendmentsin 224 YearsRead the Constitution
3Executive Departments The U.S. Government OrganizationHouse CommitteesAgricultureAppropriationsArmed ServicesBudgetEducationEnergyFinanceHealthHomeland SecurityJidiciaryNat. ResourcesScienceSmall BusinessTransportationVeterans AffairsEtc.Senate CommitteesAgricultureAppropriationsArmed ServicesBudgetEducationEnergyBankingHealthHomeland SecurityJidiciaryNat. ResourcesScienceCommerceTransportationVeterans AffairsEtc.Executive DepartmentsState Dept.Treasury Dept.Defense Dept.Justice Dept.Interior Dept.Agriculture Dept.Labor Dept.Health Dept.Housing Dept.Education Dept.Homeland Security Dept.Veterans Affairs Dept.Lower Federal CourtsCircuit Courts (12)District Courts (94)
4is built into the structure. A system ofChecks & Balancesis built into the structure.
5Native Americans in the Original US Constitution Indian Tribes were ‘independent, sovereign nations’ before Europeans arrives, and they still were after the United States was created.
6SlaveryNumeration Clause (Art 1, Sec 2) counted slaves as 3/5 of a person.Importation Clause (Art 1, Sec 9) said importing slaves could not be prohibited prior to 1808Fugitive Slave Clause (Art 4, Sec 2) said escaped slaves captured in a non-slave state must be returned to the slave owner
7Voting Rights left up to each state Most StatesIn the first presidential election of 1789, an average of 6% of the people were eligible to cast a vote.Who Could Vote?CitizenWhiteMale21Property Owner
8Naturalization Act of 1790 Who Could Become a US Citizen?
9The Essential Elements of DemocracyJust One ViewHow did theoriginalUS Constitution measure up tothese criteria ?
10The Original US Constitution Components of Democracy “We the People…” (made a bold philosophical statement)Established a constitutional, representative, democratic form of governmentEntitled some people to vote for their representativesCreated a system for holding representatives accountableSeparated and placed checks on the government’s exercise of powerRead the Constitution
11The Original US Constitution Limitations on Democracy Document debated and written by elite white malesAllowed and supported the practice of slaverySenators selected by state legislatures, not directly by the peoplePresident selected by Electoral College, not directly by the peopleJudges selected by President & Senate, not directly by the peopleVoting rights limited to white, male property owners / taxpayersProvided little protection for minorities from the will of the majorityMade no provisions for publicly-funded, mass educationRead the Constitution
12Almost immediately…Amendments 1-10…in 1791 Bill of Rights Freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, petitionRight of people to bear armsSoldiers shall not be quartered in private homesRight to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, etc., and against unreasonable searchesRight to notice of charges, protection from double jeopardy, testifying against oneself, and punishment without due process of lawRight to speedy trial by jury, to confront witnesses, to counselRight to trial by juryProtection against excessive bail, and cruel and unusual punishmentThese stated rights do not mean that people could not have other rights, as wellPowers not given to the US in the Constitution are reserved for the States
13How have changes or amendments to the U. S How have changes or amendments to the U.S. Constitution Impacted Democracy ?Have amendments to the US Constitution restricted or expanded democracy?Amendments 11-27
14Constitutional Amendments 11-27 11. Clearly defines original jurisdiction of Supreme Court (1795)Electoral College for selecting President / VicePresident (1804)Abolished slavery (1865)Established citizenship, representation, and loyalty (1868)Gave suffrage to all males of age, regardless of race (1870)Established Federal Income Tax system (1913)Established popular vote for Senators (1913)Prohibition (1919)19. Gave women right to vote (1920)Terms of office for Legislature, Presidential succession (1933)Ended Prohibition (1933)Terms limits for President (1951)Gave D.C. electoral votes (1961)Ended poll taxes (1964)Further clarifies Presidential succession (1967)Gave right to vote to all citizens 18 years of age, and older (1971)Legislators cannot give themselves pay raises in an election year (1992)
15How have changes or amendments to the U. S How have changes or amendments to the U.S. Constitution Impacted Democracy ?Have amendments to the US Constitution restricted or expanded democracy?Amendments 11-27