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Historical Background

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Presentation on theme: "Historical Background"— Presentation transcript:

1 Historical Background
Russian Revolution Historical Background

2 Terms to Know Democracy: a government formed to represent the people directly or through elected representatives Constitutional Monarchy: a government whose head of state is a monarch. The governmental policies are spelled out in a written constitution

3 Terms to Know Dictatorship: a government whose leader has absolute authority over all things in the government and under its control Totalitarian state: a government whose leader or political party has absolute control over all aspects of its citizens’ lives. Opposing ideas are not welcomed.

4 Cooperation and Sharing Competition and Personal Profit
Terms to Know Communism/Socialism: an economic system in which there is no private property--everything is held in common (by the government) for the common good of all members Cooperation and Sharing Capitalism: an economic system based on private ownership; government involvement is limited and the market is based on “free enterprise” Competition and Personal Profit

5 The Philosophical Origins of Communism

6 Karl Marx: Father of Communism
German Philosopher 1847: wrote and published The Manifesto of the Communist Party

7 Karl Marx: Father of Communism
“The point is not merely to understand the world, but to change it.”

8 Karl Marx: Manifesto Solution: Marxism Equal distribution of wealth
Problems with Capitalism Encouraged competition Provided unequal rewards--a few get a lot and most get little Wealthy hoarded education to keep the poor in their place Solution: Marxism Equal distribution of wealth Tranquil & equal relationship among citizens Elimination of poverty, ignorance, and starvation

9 Karl Marx: Father of Communism
“From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs.”

10 Karl Marx: How to do it Revolution: the wealthy won’t do this willingly so there will be a great revolt of the workers (many) who will overthrow the wealthy (few)

11 Karl Marx: Father of Communism
“Workers of the world unite; you have nothing to lose but your chains.”

12 Russia

13 Russia: 1900-1917 Marx’s ideas were spreading (communism)
Workers organized by: Vladimir Lenin Leon Trotsky Joseph Dzugashvill, who changed his name to Stalin (man of steel)

14 Russia: Political system run by a Czar (Nicholas II) who dictated policy--claimed to draw his power from God Widespread poverty, hunger, and unemployment Czar entered WWI on the side of the British, French, and Italians--more $$ diverted to army

15 Russia: 1900-1917 1914-1917: Minor revolts took place across Russia
1917: Mob assaulted the seat of government and Czar Nicholas II admitted defeat and abdicated (and left town in a hurry)

16 Russia: 1900-1918 February-October 1917: No unified central government
Provisional government set up at the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg--but they didn’t have control of the country

17 Russia: February-October 1917: Lenin, Trotsky, and Stalin worked together to take control of: Military Railroads Telegraph lines They promised soldiers and workers a more equal distribution of wealth “Land, bread, and peace for everyone” “All Power to the Soviets”

18 Russia: October 1917: Lenin, Trotsky, and Stalin assaulted the Winter Palace and seized control of the government


20 Communism under Lenin “We shall now proceed to the construction of the communist order.” Goal: Peace and Equality

21 Communism under Lenin Abolished private property
Redistributed land according to need Outlawed hired labor Gradually nationalized banks and businesses (under state control to ensure fair division of profits)

22 Communism under Lenin Problems Owed $$ from the war
The former wealthy didn’t like the new plan U.S. and Great Britain didn’t like the revolution (why not?) and gave $$ to opposition

23 Communism under Lenin Problem: How could Lenin bring about peace when there was opposition? Solution: The Red Army

24 Communism under Lenin The Red Army: created to root out and destroy dissenters (suspected anti-communists) terror campaign many Russians executed

25 Communism Under Lenin : Civil war between Communists and their enemies Led by Trotsky the Red Army prevailed and communists maintained power 1922 Lenin suffered 3 strokes and died

26 Communist power struggle: 1922-1926
Trotsky versus Stalin

27 1922-26: Trotsky versus Lenin
“The Dreamer” Brilliant speaker and writer Spoke with fire and passion Inspiring leader

28 1922-26: Trotsky versus Stalin
Intelligent Not as gifted a speaker as Trotsky focused on administrative duties and creating loyal bonds between himself and the powerful men a diplomat/pragmatist

29 Trotsky defeated In 1926 he left for Mexico
Assassinated in Mexico in 1940

30 5 Year plans to industrialize Russia
Stalin in power: 5 Year plans to industrialize Russia

31 Stalin in power: 1926-1953 KGB: Russia’s internal police force
spied on opposition within Russia

32 Stalin in power: 1926-1953 Gulags: Prison camps
kept prisoners arrested for “anti-Communist activities” in horrible conditions and used them as cheap labor

33 Stalin in power: 1926-1953 Purges of 1934 2-7 million people killed
People (many high-ranking officials) arrested and forced to “confess” through torture

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