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World History 1500 to Present Notes: World Empires and Religions circa 1500 AD; Renaissance, Reformation and Scientific Revolution Intro SOLs: 1 a-e;

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Presentation on theme: "World History 1500 to Present Notes: World Empires and Religions circa 1500 AD; Renaissance, Reformation and Scientific Revolution Intro SOLs: 1 a-e;"— Presentation transcript:

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2 World History 1500 to Present Notes: World Empires and Religions circa 1500 AD; Renaissance, Reformation and Scientific Revolution Intro SOLs: 1 a-e; 2 a-d; 3 a-c; 6 a-c; 14 a,b

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4 Characteristics of Civilization : Cities Organized Government Complex Religion Job Specialization Social Classes Art & Architecture Public Works Writing System

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6 Tigris- Euphrates River Valley Nile River Valley Indus River Valley Huang He River Valley Ancient Civilizations (Iraq) Middle East Mesopotamia Nile flows Silt- Soil (Egypt) N. Africa (Pakistan) South Asia Ancient India (Yellow River) Loess-soil (China) East Asia

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8 Cities ME I C Ancient cities (Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro) Mesopotamia (Fertile Crescent) divided into (City-States) self sufficient units “Land between the river” Sumer-1st Civilization Cities found all along the Nile River Cities built with standardized brick— rectangular shaped Cities found along the Huang He River

9 Governments MesopotamiaAncient EgyptAncient IndiaAncient China Each city-statePHARAOH Viziers Well Planned Cities Shang Dynasty Feudalism had its own king to rule Hammurabi of Babylon wrote the first CODE of LAWS Ruler/God Absolute power Men- Hereditary rulers Gov’t. Officials gave evidence of a government Ruled through King Soldier Artisans Peasants

10 Religion MEIC Polytheism— Polytheism Mummification Polytheism--- Polytheism--- (many Gods and Goddesses) dealing with nature Belief in an afterlife (many Gods and Goddesses) (many Gods and Goddesses) dealing with nature Ancestor worship

11 Writing MEIC Cuneiform Scribes-- Hieroglyphics deciphered with the Rosetta Stone Stone Seals had some form of writing– cannot be deciphered Calligraphy clay tablet and a wedge shaped stylus records Papyrus (Hieroglyphics Greek, & Demonic) marked ownership 3,000 characters

12 Public Works/ Art, and Architecture MEIC Ziggurat—Pyramids– temples for their gods with Stairs Irrigation systems tombs for their Pharaohs Irrigation systems Sewage system beneath the twin cities Irrigation systems

13 Social Ranking Mesopotamia (Sumer) EgyptIndiaChina Priest Artisans and Merchants Peasants/ Farmers Pharaohs Nobles Artisans, Scribes, and Merchants Peasants/ Farmers King Priest Peasants/ Farmers King Soldiers Artisans and Merchants King Priest Artisans and Merchants Peasants/ Farmers

14 Contributions and Technologies Mesopotamia (Sumer) EgyptIndiaChina Wheel Epic of Gilgamesh, studies in astronomy, mathematics (units of 60), and medicine. Form of Geometry used to make accurate calculations to build the pyramids Calender-365 days—to predict the floods Copper and bronze Sculptures Weights And Measures Bronze working Silk

15 World Religions Essential Information

16 Essential Questions What is “religion” “commitment or devotion to an organized system of beliefs, ceremonies and practices” What is the PURPOSE of religion? –Help people seek answers to enduring questions

17 Things to keep in mind before beginning a comprehensive review of World Religions: Psychologists deny that there is a “religious” instinct Social environment Upbringing/conditioning Search for value/meaning in life (both intellectual and emotional) Religion is linked to morality Morals vary from society to society “learning about” and “practicing” are two different things…Practice what you will, but you are expected to “learn” about them all

18 When did man first exhibit “religious feelings?” Dreams & Visions Fears, Magic, superstition….”the little voice of right and wrong” Burying the dead with care and/or ceremony

19 Physical Geography Natural barriers will delay the spread of some religions/ideas/ traditions

20 The Sky figured prominently in early religions

21 “The Sun” was central to many early religions Source of light, heat, “life” Symbols of the sun associated with power/royalty Knowledge of the heavens (astronomy) meant some scholars could let rulers know when solar events would occur

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23 The Moon and its phases did too…

24 Early man paid attention to the sky and to nature The “celestial bodies” and forces of nature were mysteries Powerful Predictable (at least the sun, moon, and seasons) “Awesome” to contemplate…therefore:

25 Astronomy was part of many early religions

26 The sun and moon were constant…nature changed Everything has a spirit Nature offered many “gods” and “goddesses” for early man to worship and respect Modern people refer to these non- organized religious practices as “Pagan” religions

27 What is “Paganism?” Earth/nature based religion traced to Neolithic times through Middle Ages Earliest civilizations in Sumer, Greece and Rome would be classified as “pagan” religions Druids and “goddess” or “Mother Earth” worshippers “polytheistic” by definition….

28 Working Vocabulary for Our Study Theology: Ecclesiastical: Secular: Doctrine: Rituals: Deity: Denomination: Sect: Agnostic: Atheist: The study of religions Related to the church or clergy Related to worldly things Beliefs of a religion Ceremonial rites of a religion Any kind of god or goddess Subset of an organized religion Implies the group broke away from a religion Believes humans can not know whether God exists Does not believe God exists at all

29 Belief in “gods” versus “GOD” POLYTHEISM –The belief in many gods –Many ancient religions were “polytheistic” –Many tribal societies worship nature gods MONOTHEISM –The belief in only ONE god –Hebrews (Jews) were the first monotheistic group in ancient times –Christians were next –Muslims were next

30 Hinduism: Images and Symbols

31 1. “Om” 2. “Bindi” 3. “Lotus” 4. “Swastika” 5. “Trishula”

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33 Hinduism I. Oldest “living” religion A. Origins 4,000 years ago in earliest cities of India –No single founder/shaped by thousands of years of different peoples and cultures –A way of life –“polytheistic” BUT “Brahman” is 1 spiritual force represented through many gods

34 Hinduism B. Basic Beliefs: Reincarnation- rebirth of the soul into another form based on behavior of present life Karma - actions of life that will affect fate in the next life Dharma- religious and moral duties Caste System- rigid social ranking 3 Major Gods- BRAHMA (the Creator) VISHNU (the Preserver) SHIVA (the Destroyer)

35 In the Hindu Trinity of Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva, the Hindu god Vishnu is the preserver and protector of creation. (Vishnu is the embodiment of mercy and goodness and represents the omnipresent power that preserves the universe and maintains the cosmic order)

36 Hinduism C. Sacred Texts: VEDAS and Upanishads contain the central Hindu teachings Bhagavad-Gita has ethical ideas central to Hinduism D. Customs: –Ahisma: (nonviolence) all living things are aspects of brahman and deserve respect –Caste system: rigid social ranking, outlawed but still “there” –Ganges River: sacred river, “River= Soul” –Cow: sacred animal –Dietary restrictions: Hindus do not eat beef/cow

37 Hinduism E. Spread/Influence: –Mostly India and a few other Asian nations –Influenced Buddhism (founder was a Hindu prince) –Symbols part of popular culture

38 Symbols and Images of Buddhism

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40 The Dharma Wheel (wheel of life) has eight spokes, signifying each of the steps in the Eightfold path.

41 II. Buddhism A. Origins : Siddharta Gautama “the enlightened one” (Buddha) founded it in India –It spread to China, Tibet, Korea,….not popular in India B. Basic Beliefs: –Life is a cycle of death and rebirth –NIRVANA: state of bliss/escape from cycle of rebirth –Religion does NOT stress the belief in a supreme being or in powerful gods –*personal enlightenment is the goal and it comes from WITHIN each person

42 Buddhism C. Sacred Texts: Tripitaka is the Buddhist holy book with the core beliefs of the Buddha…. *Four Noble Truths* 1.“All living holds suffering” 2.“Suffering is related to/caused by GREED” 3.“Suffering ends when GREED stops” 4.“Stop Greed by living a proper life”…… by following the eightfold path

43 One lives a proper life by following the 8 fold path…… Right views Right aspirations Right speech Right conduct Right livelihood Right effort Right mindfulness Right contemplation “Understand the 4 noble truths” and “commit to he 8 fold path” “Live a moral life, avoid evil words and actions” “Meditate to achieve enlightenment”

44 Buddhism D. Customs: –No formal places of worship –Individual religion –More “open” and accepting of all humans regardless of social position –*equal opportunity religion* because it is really a quest for “self-understanding” E. Influence/Spread of Buddhism: China, Tibet, Korea and Japan

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46 Images and symbols of: Judaism

47 Judaism

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49 III. Judaism A.Origins: Hebrews were first people to worship a single, all powerful god (MONOTHEISM) –Judaism began 4,000 years ago –Founder was Abraham around 1300 BC B. Basic Beliefs: One God Covenant: promise between God and Hebrews that God would love and protect Hebrews if they obeyed his laws LAWFULNESS: God established moral laws and agrees to be fair to those who obey them

50 III. Judaism History: idea that God is changing the world and leading humanity to a better life Sabbath: special day of rest and prayer –Jews observe it from dusk on Friday through Saturday C. Sacred Text: Torah –A group of ancient writings called the Old Testament that tells the story

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52 Christianity

53 Basic Beliefs – Monotheistic faith based on Judaism – Certain basic beliefs shared with Judaism: Only one God (MONOTHEISM) Live after Death People are equal before God History is in Old Testament

54 Christianity Basic Beliefs Unique to Christianity –That the prophet Jesus of Nazareth was the Son of God –That the birth, life, death and resurrection of Jesus was a sacrifice for the forgiveness of human sin –Jesus’ message was that people should love each other as God loves them all

55 Christianity Sacred Text: Holy Bible –Consists of the Hebrew Old Testament –And the New Testament (66 books and gospels) –Controversial history of eliminating other books from the “final draft” of the Bible –Many councils met to codify (write down) official Christian doctrine and eliminate alternative teachings

56 Christianity Spread and Influence –After years of persecution and executions of Christians, it becomes the official religion of the Roman Empire and spreads through Europe –Becomes a global religion with over a billion people belonging to any of the many Christian Churches

57 Parish priests, bishops, cardinals, …POPE Head of the church: Patriarch members of the clergy could not marry Priest can marry Latin -- language of the Church & learning Liturgy delivered in Greek Excommunication: those who chose to ignore the orders of the Church would be “kicked out” Use of Icons debated Split within Christianity Catholic Eastern Orthodox

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60 Islam

61 Origins: Followers are called Muslims The prophet Muhammad founded it in the holy city of Mecca (Saudi Arabia) in 610 AD Message of Allah (GOD) revealed to Mohammad by the Angel Gabriel

62 Islam Basic Beliefs: Monotheistic Accept the revelations of earlier prophets: Abraham, Moses and Jesus Muhammad is the last and greatest of the prophets All people are equal before God (not racist) All Muslims must follow the 5 pillars

63 Islam: 5 pillars or beliefs Belief in ONE true God (Allah) Pray 5 times a day Alms (charity) to the poor Fast (no food or drink) from dawn to dusk during the month of Ramadan Make a hajj (sacred visit/pilgrimage) to Mecca

64 Islam Sacred Text is the Koran (Qur'an) The sound of the Koran being called from a tower is the first and last thing a Muslim hears everyday of their lives Koran provides an outline for creating a JUST life : worship, laws, family, behaviors, work, business practices, economic systems, etc

65 Islam Customs: traditional toleration for both Jews and Christians as “people of the book” Ceremony in Mecca is walking around the Kaaba (shrine with a sacred black stone) No special day of rest, but Fridays all males must attend prayers at a mosque

66 Islam Customs –Art does not picture man or God but lots of geometric shapes and patterns –Religion is LIFE..no separation of religion and government or law Called “Sharia” or divine law by strict Islamic states –Dietary Restrictions: no pork, alcohol or drugs –Life and property of all citizens in an Islamic country are sacred whether the person is Muslim or not

67 Islam Spread/Influence of Islam: Approx. 1 billion Muslims (more NON-ARAB muslims than Arab) During 7 th and 12 th centuries Muslims had great economic and political power as Islam spread in major trade zones from Africa to Asia Linked by Arabic language, currency, and faith “History of religious conflict with Jews and Christians marked by cooperation and conflict”

68 Shintoism*

69 Shintoism Ancient (500 BC) religion unique to Japan Mixture of nature worship, fertility cults, divination techniques, hero worship, and shamanism Comes from Chinese words “Shin Tao” or “The way of the Gods” Shinto has no real founder, no written scriptures, no body of religious law, and only a very loosely-organized priesthood

70 Shintoism “Kami” are gods that created the Japanese Islands Shinto gods are not like the God of monotheistic religions, they are related to nature/food/water Also are abstract and creative energies Believed that the imperial rulers of Japan were descended from these gods Most Shinto believers are followers of Confuciansim

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72 “ Cultural Diffusion” and religion Buddhism + Taoism = ZEN Buddhism Hinduism + Sufism = Sikhism Roman Catholicism + traditional African religions (Yoruba in Nigeria)= Santeria

73 Contributions of Ancient Greece and Rome

74 “Classical” Heritage “Classical” for Western people almost always means “Greek & Roman” heritage of literature, art, architecture or ideals “Classical ___X___” …China, India, Islamic, Maya, etc. simply refers to the age when the traditional features of those cultures emerge

75 CLASSICAL Philosophy and Government of the Greeks and Romans DEMOCRACY: Demos + Kratos (political power in the hands of the people…who “matter”) Ideas about government and society: Socrates, Plato & Aristotle Value of Education

76 Art What VALUES are evident in the sculpture that represent GREEK art and architecture? Describe the man. What is he doing? Why is what he is doing important to the ancient Greeks?

77 Architecture What Greek Values do you see in these columns? –Doric –Ionic –Corinthian

78 Greek & Roman Architecture styles are still used today to elicit “Classical” memories of great ideas about balance, harmony and sound government

79 Empire of Alexander the Great

80 Roman Heritage: Builds on Greek Heritage Early laws like in Twelve Tables develop into a body of Roman civil law that only applied to Roman CITIZENS Later, they expanded law to deal with non-citizens and “others” (Law of Nations) Established standards for justice we still recognize today

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82 After the “FALL of Rome” Heritage of Government & Law Classical Ruins to remind people of past Greatness LATIN Roman Catholic Church

83 African Kingdoms and trade

84 Under Roman rule, (Christianity, roads, dams, aqueducts, and cities grew across the region.) Camels brought from Asia revolutionized trade across the Sahara. In the 600s, Arab armies replaced Christianity with Islam and Arabic became the primary language of business (lingua franca) North Africa “Warfare and Trade brought about Cultural Diffusion”

85 African Empires Nubia Axum Ghana Mali Songhai Great Zimbabwe

86 Gold was plentiful in the West African savanna. Salt, which people need in their diet to prevent dehydration in the Savanna. West Africans traded gold to North Africa and for salt. (weight) Trading Gold and Salt

87 “Ships of the Desert” Camels

88 African Trade Problem: In ancient times, the Egyptians engaged in just a trickle of commercial trade with west Africa, even though West Africa was rich in gold, precious metals, ivory, salt, and other resources. Why: The reason for this was the imposing barrier of the Sahara, which in Arabic simply means "The Desert." Solution: The camel is the only animal to have replaced the wheel (mainly in North Africa) where the wheel had already been established. The camel did not lose that distinction until the wheel was combined with the internal combustion engine in the 20th century.

89 Why Camels? Characteristics: - Keep their footing in sliding sand - Go a long time without water - Patient beasts - Run very fast - Carry unbelievably heavy loads for impossibly long distances

90 Characteristics continued - They have a thick coat that aids them in desert-like conditions. - They have large stores of fat which provide energy. - Their long legs help by keeping them further from the hot ground. - Their mouth is very sturdy, able to chew thorny desert plants. - Long eyelashes and ear hairs, together with sealable nostrils, form a barrier against sand - The and intestines of a camel are very efficient at retaining water. - The kidneys and intestines of a camel are very efficient at retaining water.

91 A Growing Economy Trade has played an important role in the economy of West Africa since very early times. As early as 300 AD, camel caravans carried salt from mines in the Sahara Desert to trading centers along the Niger River in present-day Mali. Trade has played an important role in the economy of West Africa since very early times. As early as 300 AD, camel caravans carried salt from mines in the Sahara Desert to trading centers along the Niger River in present-day Mali. Their mission was to exchange the salt for the gold that was mined in forests near the headwaters of the Niger. Their mission was to exchange the salt for the gold that was mined in forests near the headwaters of the Niger. West Africa's first kingdom, Ghana, became wealthy and powerful because it controlled the trade routes and commercial activities in its region.

92 The Spread of Religion The spread of Islam across North Africa in the 7th century dramatically increased trans-Saharan trade. As the market expanded, strategically sited towns became major centers of commerce, welcoming merchants from distant lands. The spread of Islam across North Africa in the 7th century dramatically increased trans-Saharan trade. As the market expanded, strategically sited towns became major centers of commerce, welcoming merchants from distant lands. Merchants transported more than valuable commodities along the trans-Saharan routes. Just as Buddhism reached the Chinese Empire via Indian merchants travelling the Silk Road, Islam reached black West Africa through Arab Merchants on Saharan caravan routes. Merchants transported more than valuable commodities along the trans-Saharan routes. Just as Buddhism reached the Chinese Empire via Indian merchants travelling the Silk Road, Islam reached black West Africa through Arab Merchants on Saharan caravan routes. During the Ghana, Mali, and Songhay empires Arab merchants brought the Koran and the written language Arabic to the traditionally oral cultures each empire encompassed. During the Ghana, Mali, and Songhay empires Arab merchants brought the Koran and the written language Arabic to the traditionally oral cultures each empire encompassed.

93 Trade Routes The Saharan Trade extended from the Sub-Saharan West African kingdoms across the Sahara desert to Europe. The Saharan Trade linked such African empires as Ghana, Mali, and Songhay to the European world. The Saharan Trade extended from the Sub-Saharan West African kingdoms across the Sahara desert to Europe. The Saharan Trade linked such African empires as Ghana, Mali, and Songhay to the European world. Merchants established a second major gold-salt trade route northeast across the Sahara that passed through Tunis, and Cairo, and ended in Egypt's interior. This route complimented the traditional Western Sudan-- Maghreb--Europe trade route. As the second trade route grew in popularity, Egypt's influence on the Western Sudan grew as well. Merchants established a second major gold-salt trade route northeast across the Sahara that passed through Tunis, and Cairo, and ended in Egypt's interior. This route complimented the traditional Western Sudan-- Maghreb--Europe trade route. As the second trade route grew in popularity, Egypt's influence on the Western Sudan grew as well.

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95 Contributions of Empires of India and China

96 Government--Religion-- Accomplishments--Education-- Ruled northern China BC to 256 BC Zhou Dynasty-- (pronounced Joew) Feudal State --(Emperor/ Lords/ Warriors/ Peasants) Mandate of Heaven - right to rule Polytheism Daoism/Taoism - live in harmony Expert silk makers and iron working Confucius was born during the Zhou Dynasty.

97 Government--Religion -- Accomplishments--Education-- Ruled part of modern China into Korea (202 BC - 220AD) Han Dynasty Liu Bang and Wudi ruled according to Confucianism Civil Service Test Polytheism Buddhism enters China Silk Road, Paper, Porcelain, Fishing Reel, and Stirrups Advances in Zoology, Botany, Chemistry, Anesthetics, and Acupuncture

98 China’s most influential philosopher Concerned with social order and good government Honest, hard work, and concern for others it important. The best ruler and was a virtuous man who led by example Filial Piety– The Analects-- Chinese Philosophies Confucius Confucianism People accept their place in society Belief that people were naturally good Respect for one’s parent was put above all other duties Confucius sayings written down.

99 Laozi was the founder Focused on the Dao -the way of the universe Daoism turned into a popular religion with gods, goddesses, and magical practices Daoism/Taoism Chinese Religion Wanted everyone to live in harmony with nature Rejected the world of conflict Viewed government as unnatural

100 TANG DYNASTYSONG DYNASTY REUNITED CHINA FORCED KOREA, VIETNAM & TIBET TO BECOME TRIBUTARY STATES FARMING SHIFTED TO RICE NEW STRAIN --2 HARVESTS/YEAR GROWTH IN COMMERCE AND ARTS (GOLDEN AGE) EMPHASIZED CONFUCIANISM BUREAUCRACY --CIVIL SERVICE TEST GREAT CANAL BETWEEN HUANG HE AND YANGZI RIVERS PORCELAIN MECHANICAL CLOCKS GUNPOWDER PAPER MONEY PRINTING SPREAD OF CIVILIZATIONS IN EAST ASIA

101 KUBLAI KHAN MONGOL LEADER CONQUERED CHINA, KOREA, TIBET, VIETNAM CHINESE HATED MONGOLIAN GOVERNMENT TRIED TO KEEP MONGOLS FROM BEING ABSORBED – (CHINESE CIVILIZATION) ONLY MONGOLS IN MILITARY ONLY MONGOLS IN HIGH GOVERNMENT JOBS WORLD’S LARGEST EVER EMPIRE YUAN DYNASTY

102 MARCO POLO VENETIAN TRADER (from Venics Italy) – gone 17 YEARS –WROTE A BOOK WHEN HE RETURNED TO VENICE –BROUGHT BACK GUNPOWDER, PORCELAIN, PLAYING CARDS

103 MING DYNASTY OVERTHREW YUAN DYNASTY RESTORED CIVIL SERVICE TEST & CONFUCIAN LEARNING ECONOMIC REVIVAL --LARGE CROPS DUE TO BETTER TECHNOLOGY LITERATURE POETRY, NOVELS, DETECTIVE STORIES FORBIDDEN CITY

104 JAPAN SEAS PROTECTED AND ISOLATED JAPAN. ARCHIPELAGO - CHAIN OF ISLANDS SHINTO –STATE RELIGION –UNIQUE TO JAPAN –IMPORTANCE OF NATURAL FEATURES, FORCES OF NATURE, ANCESTORS & EMPEROR –COEXISTS WITH BUDDHISM

105 JAPAN’S FEUDAL AGE EMPEROR –POWERLESS, BUT REVERED SHOGUN –SUPREME MILITARY COMMANDER DAIMYO –LARGE LANDOWNERS WARRIOR LORDS SAMURAI –WARRIORS

106 Japan’s Culture BUSHIDO –CODE OF VALUES –HONOR, BRAVERY, ABSOLUTE LOYALTY KAMIKAZE MONGOLS TRIED TO CONQUER JAPAN TWICE BOTH TIMES SHIPS WERE DESTROYED BY TYPHOONS “DIVINE WIND”

107 Medieval Europe, Russia & Ancient America

108 Rome Divided (Diocletian) Western Roman Empire Byzantine Empire Falls to Barbarians - Germanic Tribes Thrives for another 900 yrs

109 Germanic Tribes Invade Constantinople Western Roman Empire

110 Old Greek Seaport _________________— connecting—Black Sea and the Mediterranean Controlled trade route between_______________ Constantine renamed Byzantium to ____________ Constantinople (rich, beautiful, and majestic-The City)--known an _________ today Byzantine Empire Bosporus Strait Europe and Asia Constantinople Istanbul

111 Justinian Almost destroyed Rome--regain control _______________________(Roman Laws) “Corpus Juris Civilis”-- _____________ ___________________________________ Hagia Sophia (______________) --Church Justinian Code of Laws Body of Civil Law Influenced Western Europe Holy Wisdom

112 Hagia Sophia– ___________________ Icons– religious pictures (______) Mosaics– ________________ arched dome cathedral Jesus marbles tiles

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114 INFLUENCE OF THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE ON RUSSIA Adopted: 1. 2.Byzantine Art & Architecture St Cyril -- Greek monk 3. Created alphabet for Slavs -- Russian(_________) alphabet Eastern Orthodox religion Cyrillic

115 MayaAztecInca Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico and Central America MexicoAndes Mountains of South America Ancient American Civilizations

116 Maya Government _ _______ Aztec Government _____________ (_____________) – 300, 000 people He ruled 11,000,000 Inca Government ____________and _________ (cities) Machu Picchu Religion Polytheism Made sacrifices _______________ Religion Polytheism Made sacrifices to their gods ________________ Religion Polytheism Sapa Incas (emperor – descended from the___________) Chichen Itza & Tikal King Pyramid like Temples Emperor Tenochtitlan Settled (myth) Emperor Governors Sun God

117 MayaAztecInca Achievements form of___________ writing number system based upon the concept of_______ created a calendar with _____days Achievements form of ______________ writing number system based upon units of ________ calendar for agriculture and religious rites Achievements __________were complex color- coded bunches of knotted strings used to keep an accurate account of goods and the workforce constructed nearly 12,000 _____________ hieroglyphic zero 365 hieroglyphic ten quipu miles of roads

118 “Follow the Wealth”

119 Crusades, 1096– Holy Land

120 Spread of the Black Death By 1347, the _________________had spread to Europe. Over a 3 year period _____of the population in Europe was wiped out Cause - Rats from Asia ___________________carry the disease through trade and ships to Europe. 5 bubonic plague 1/3 infested with fleas

121 The Black Death Caused Social and Economic Decline. _______________ punished (God) end inevitable (Enjoy) Normal life broke down..___________________ ___________________ production Fewer workers higher wages _____________ Landowners abandoned farming (villagers - towns) peasants_________ Social EffectsEconomic Effects 5 witchcraft Christians blamed and persecuted Jews (Inflation) revolted

122 The Renaissance Circa 1300 to 1600 AD/CE Period of creativity and change –Economic –Political –Social –cultural Features: –Greek and Roman culture is revived and appreciated –Focus shift from GOD to MAN –“HUMANISM” –“REAL-ISM” in general

123 The Renaissance People saw themselves and their world differently –(more like the Greeks/Romans) –Life NOW is as important as the life AFTER DEATH –“Multi-talents” are encouraged and valued

124 The Renaissance Why did it begin in Italy? –Geography =sea access –Economic activity in cities Capitalism increases demand for skilled labor –Roman past

125 What Was the Renaissance? Renaissance thinkers explored the human experience in the________________. They emphasized_____________________________. The Renaissance ideal was the person with talent in many fields (da Vinci) At the heart of the Italian Renaissance was an intellectual movement known as humanism. Humanism was based on the study of classical culture and focused on worldly subjects rather than on religious issues. 1 here and now individual achievement

126 Why Did the Renaissance Begin in Italy ? _______________________________ Had access to trade routes connecting ____________________________markets Served as trading centers for the distribution of goods to ______________ Were initially independent ___________ governed as republics 1 Florence, Venice, and Genoa Europe with Middle Eastern northern Europe city-states

127 Machiavelli: New view of Politics Fear is more powerful than love The end justifies the means Do good when possible, but do not avoid evil

128 Machiavelli’s -____________ An early modern treatise on____________ Supported _________________of the ruler Maintains that “the end justifies the means” Advises that one should do good if possible, but ___________________________ government The Prince absolute power do evil when necessary

129 Three Geniuses of The Italian Renaissance Wrote sonnets in Italian and Latin—14-line poems Talented sculptor, engineer, painter, architect, and poet Sculpted the Pieta and statue of David Painted huge mural to decorate the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in Rome Masterpieces include Mona Lisa and The Last Supper Studied botany, anatomy, optics, music, architecture, and engineering Made sketches for flying machines and undersea boats Petrarch MICHELANGELODaVinci 1

130 Leonardo Da Vinci

131 The Last Supper

132 Leonardo Da Vinci “Mona Lisa”

133 Leonardo Da Vinci “Vitruvian Man”

134 Leonardo Da Vinci Popular 21 st century references:

135 Michelangelo’s “Pieta”

136 Michelangelo “David”

137 Michelangelo Sistine Chapel ceiling

138 Botticelli “Birth of Venus”

139 Botticelli “Primavera”

140 “Youth” Botticelli

141 Erasmus Northern humanist In Praise of Folly

142 Renaissance Artists and Writers Explored New Themes and Techniques Wrote self-help books to help ambitious men and women rise in the Renaissance world Rejected Gothic style Adopted columns, domes, and arches that had been favored by the Greeks and Romans Developed realistic Style Learned rules of perspective Used shading to make objects look round and real Studied human anatomy Used live models 1 WRITERSARCHITECTS PAINTERS

143 Northern Renaissance Growing wealth in Northern Europe Supported Renaissance ideas Thinkers merged humanist ideas with Christianity Northern Renaissance writers –____________— In Praise of Folly (1511) –___________________— Utopia (1516) Erasmus Sir Thomas More

144 The Printing Revolution A printing revolution took place when: In 1456, Johann Gutenberg printed the Bible using the first printing press and printing inks. Movable type was developed twenty years later. IMPACT: Printed books were___________________________. With books more readily available, more people learned to read in their own languages (____________) Readers gained access to a broad range of knowledge and ideas. 2 cheaper and easier to produce vernacular

145 Usury: practice of lending $$$ for interest The Church considered USURY a SIN Increasing merchant wealth changed the Church policy and more Christians became bankers

146 End of Religious Unity and Universality in the West Attack on the medieval church— Not the first attempt at reform Word “Protestant” is first used for dissenting German princes who met at the Diet of Speyer in 1529 The Protestant Reformation ( )

147 I. The Church’s Problems Charges of greed Obvious corruption Worldly (secular) political power challenged Growing human confidence vs. “original sin”

148 I. The Church’s Problems (cont) The corruption of the Renaissance Papacy --Rodrigo Borgia(Alexander VI) European population was increasingly anti-clerical Absenteeism of church leaders The controversy over the sale of indulgences

149 Cultural aspects Better educated people were more critical of the Church Monarchs resent growing political power of the Church Society was more humanistic and secular Growing individualism --John Wycliffe in England --Jan Huss in Bohemia

150 Individuals BEFORE Martin Luther John Wycliffe –England, late 1300s –Parliament vs. Rome over $$$$$$ –“Church people should be POOR!” –Posthumously called a heretic –Bones were burned/scattered Jan Huss –Bohemia, early 1400s –Great Schism/pope selection –Excommunicated for insubordination –Burned at the stake in 1415

151 Significance of the Printing Press Invention of movable type was invented in 1450 by Johann Gutenberg Manufacture of paper becomes easier and cheaper Helped spread ideas before Catholics could squash them Intensified intellectual criticism of the Church Protestant ideals appealed to the urban and the literate

152 Spiritual Aspects Growing piety, mysticism and religious zeal among European masses Dutch Christian humanist Erasmus inadvertently undermines the Church from within --In Praise of Folly (1510) Call for a translation of the New Testament into Greek Call for a return to the simplicity of the early Church

153 The Holy Roman Empire Decentralized politics Pope successfully challenged the monarch here New HRE, a Habsburg, Charles V, is young, politically insecure and attempting to govern a huge realm during the critical years of Luther’s protest Charles V faced outside attacks from France and the Turks Circumstances favor Luther

154 A. Germany (Northern) Luther troubled by the sale of indulgences Dominican friar Tetzel was selling indulgences in Wittenberg in 1517 Luther posts his 95 theses on the door of the castle church in Wittenberg on October 31, 1517 Some of Luther’s complaints Luther slowly but surely is drawn into a heated debate

155 Germany (Northern) Luther attacks the Pope and his bull of excommunication Constraints against the spread of Luther’s ideas The Peace of Augsburg, 1555 The Protestant Reformation further divided Germany

156 Luther’s Teachings Salvation by Faith Alone Bible :THE source of religious authority --Luther’s German Translation of the New Testament The Priesthood (Equality) of All Believers --Peasant Revolt of 1525 Some latent (hidden/leftover) Catholicism

157 Zurich, Switzerland Urban, cosmopolitan setting Zwingli also opposed many Catholic ideas: fasting during Lent, purgatory, clerical celibacy, intercession of the saints, and salvation by work Fought with other Protestants groups Killed, cut up & burned

158 John Calvin: Background More of a scholar than Luther More of a systematic thinker than Luther Calvin’s Institutes (1536) Early legal training Clear-cut moral directives for living Relied on the Bible for religious authority

159 Background Desire to return to the primitive, first-century Church High standard of morality valued and pursued Bitterly persecuted by both Catholics and other Protestants

160 Teaching Free will—all can be saved Adult, “believer” baptism Social and economic equality Pacifism Separation of Church and State

161 Teachings Predestination The right of rebellion --English Civil War More of a stress on works than Luther Government serves the Church “Just” war position

162 The CALVINIST Tradition: John Calvin’s leadership in Geneva from PREDESTINATION Stress on order and rigorous adherence to God’s law faith revealed by living a righteous life, work ethic Set up a “theocracy” Self-discipline and the “Protestant Work Ethic” Actions: Expanded the Protestant Movement

163 Before Reformation in England Notion of the Renaissance Prince Recent War of the Roses created a sense of political instability for the Tudor dynasty --Henry VIII The significance of a male heir to the Tudors

164 England during Reign of Henry VIII Henry VIII’s marriage to Catherine of Aragon (Spanish Catholic) Henry seeks an annulment Henry creates the PROTESTANT Church of England and establishes his own supremacy over it A “political reformation” only at first

165 Reformation in England Henry VIII”s views: Dismissed the authority of the Pope in Rome ACTIONS: –Divorced –broke with Rome –headed the national church in England –Appropriated (took for himself) lands and wealth of the Catholic churches in England

166 Reformation in England (cont) The reign of “Bloody” Mary I (kills Protestants) Elizabeth I (Protestant): firmly establishes England as a PROTESTANT NATION

167 France King Francis I was initially sympathetic to Luther as long as his Protestant ideas stayed in Germany Protestantism was made illegal in France in 1534 Persecution of the Huguenots St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre King Henry IV and the Edict of Nantes (1598)

168 E. Other Parts of Western Europe No Protestant inroads into Spain or Italy urban success and where supported by the nobility After 1540, no new Protestant territories outside of the Netherlands Most powerful European nations were Catholic Protestants were feuding with each other

169

170 V. The Counter-Reformation: The Catholic Response 1.Jesuit Order 2.Reform papacy 3.Council of Trent 4.…Inquisition

171 Elements of the Counter-Reformation The Society of Jesus (Jesuits) established by Spanish nobleman Ignatius of Loyola –Loyal to pope –Spread Catholicism –Role back Protestantism

172 Elements of the Counter-Reformation Council of Trent ( ): decrees reaffirmed traditional Catholic teachings –Faith AND good works were necessary for salvation –Seven sacraments –Catholic view of Eucharist –Clerical celibacy –Purgatory was REAL –Indulgences could be given, but not SOLD!

173 Elements of the Counter-Reformation “The Inquisition”

174 Results of the Reformation Germany was politically weakened and fragmented Peace of Augsburg 1555 ends 100 Years of Political Religious Warfare in Germany Furthered feelings of individualism and secularism Growing doubt and religious skepticism

175 Results of Reformation (cont) Political stability valued over religious truth Calvinism boosted the commercial revolution Focus on the individual fostered “capitalistic instincts” for hard work and risk taking The Reformation contributed to the rise of capitalism. Witch craze swept Europe in the 1600’s --Between , MANY people were executed as witches

176 REVIEW

177 England France Spain Russia Ottoman Empire Persia China Mughal India Songhai Empire Aztec Empire Incan Empire Mayan Empire Important Areas of Concern

178 Be able to discuss the differences and similarities in the BELIEFS of Luther and Calvin Be familiar with the terms: –Huguenots –Presbyterians –Puritans

179 Vocab + GEOG? Can you place every VOCAB term on the map? Can you connect 3+ terms? Can you locate major empires AND determine the RELIGION at 1500 AND contemporary locations? Can you discuss all 10 Comps questions without notes?


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