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World History 1500 to Present

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1 World History 1500 to Present
Notes: World Empires and Religions circa 1500 AD; Renaissance, Reformation and Scientific Revolution Intro SOLs: 1 a-e; 2 a-d; 3 a-c; 6 a-c; 14 a,b

2 http://www. youtube. com/watch

3 Characteristics of Civilization:
Cities Organized Government Complex Religion Job Specialization Social Classes Art & Architecture Public Works Writing System


5 Ancient Civilizations
Tigris- Euphrates River Valley Nile River Valley Indus River Valley Huang He River Valley (Yellow River) Loess-soil (China) East Asia Nile flows Silt- Soil (Egypt) N. Africa (Pakistan) South Asia Ancient India (Iraq) Middle East Mesopotamia


7 Cities M E C I Ancient cities (Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro) Mesopotamia
(Fertile Crescent) divided into (City-States) self sufficient units “Land between the river” Sumer-1st Civilization Cities found all along the Nile River Cities found along the Huang He River Cities built with standardized brick— rectangular shaped

8 Governments Mesopotamia Ancient Egypt Ancient India Ancient China
Each city-state PHARAOH Viziers Well Planned Cities Shang Dynasty Feudalism Ruled through had its own king to rule Hammurabi of Babylon wrote the first CODE of LAWS Ruler/God Absolute power Men- Hereditary rulers gave evidence of a government King Soldier Artisans Peasants Gov’t. Officials

9 Religion M E I C Polytheism— Polytheism Mummification Polytheism---
(many Gods and Goddesses) dealing with nature Ancestor worship (many Gods and Goddesses) dealing with nature (many Gods and Goddesses) Belief in an afterlife

10 Writing M E I C Cuneiform Scribes-- Hieroglyphics deciphered with the
Rosetta Stone Stone Seals had some form of writing– cannot be deciphered Calligraphy clay tablet and a wedge shaped stylus Papyrus 3,000 characters marked ownership (Hieroglyphics Greek, & Demonic) records

11 Public Works/ Art, and Architecture
M E I C Ziggurat— Pyramids– Sewage system beneath the twin cities Irrigation systems Irrigation systems temples for their gods with Stairs Irrigation systems tombs for their Pharaohs Irrigation systems

12 Social Ranking Egypt India China Mesopotamia Priest Artisans and
(Sumer) Egypt India China Priest Artisans and Merchants Peasants/ Farmers Pharaohs Nobles Artisans, Scribes, King Soldiers King Priest Artisans and Merchants Peasants/ Farmers

13 Contributions and Technologies
Mesopotamia (Sumer) Egypt India China Copper and bronze Sculptures Weights And Measures Wheel Epic of Gilgamesh, studies in astronomy, mathematics (units of 60), and medicine. Form of Geometry used to make accurate calculations to build the pyramids Calender-365 days—to predict the floods Bronze working Silk

14 Essential Information
World Religions Essential Information

15 Essential Questions What is “religion”
“commitment or devotion to an organized system of beliefs, ceremonies and practices” What is the PURPOSE of religion? Help people seek answers to enduring questions

16 Things to keep in mind before beginning a comprehensive review of World Religions:
Psychologists deny that there is a “religious” instinct Social environment Upbringing/conditioning Search for value/meaning in life (both intellectual and emotional) Religion is linked to morality Morals vary from society to society “learning about” and “practicing” are two different things…Practice what you will, but you are expected to “learn” about them all

17 When did man first exhibit “religious feelings?”
Dreams & Visions Fears, Magic, superstition….”the little voice of right and wrong” Burying the dead with care and/or ceremony

18 Physical Geography Natural barriers will delay the spread of some religions/ideas/ traditions

19 The Sky figured prominently in early religions

20 “The Sun” was central to many early religions
Source of light, heat, “life” Symbols of the sun associated with power/royalty Knowledge of the heavens (astronomy) meant some scholars could let rulers know when solar events would occur


22 The Moon and its phases did too…

23 Early man paid attention to the sky and to nature
The “celestial bodies” and forces of nature were mysteries Powerful Predictable (at least the sun, moon, and seasons) “Awesome” to contemplate…therefore:

24 Astronomy was part of many early religions

25 The sun and moon were constant…nature changed
Everything has a spirit Nature offered many “gods” and “goddesses” for early man to worship and respect Modern people refer to these non-organized religious practices as “Pagan” religions

26 What is “Paganism?” Earth/nature based religion traced to Neolithic times through Middle Ages Earliest civilizations in Sumer, Greece and Rome would be classified as “pagan” religions Druids and “goddess” or “Mother Earth” worshippers “polytheistic” by definition….

27 Working Vocabulary for Our Study
Theology: Ecclesiastical: Secular: Doctrine: Rituals: Deity: Denomination: Sect: Agnostic: Atheist: The study of religions Related to the church or clergy Related to worldly things Beliefs of a religion Ceremonial rites of a religion Any kind of god or goddess Subset of an organized religion Implies the group broke away from a religion Believes humans can not know whether God exists Does not believe God exists at all

28 Belief in “gods” versus “GOD”
MONOTHEISM The belief in only ONE god Hebrews (Jews) were the first monotheistic group in ancient times Christians were next Muslims were next POLYTHEISM The belief in many gods Many ancient religions were “polytheistic” Many tribal societies worship nature gods

29 Hinduism: Images and Symbols
1 2. 4. 3. 5.

30 1. “Om” 2. “Bindi” 4. “Swastika” 3. “Lotus” 5. “Trishula”


32 Hinduism I. Oldest “living” religion
A. Origins 4,000 years ago in earliest cities of India No single founder/shaped by thousands of years of different peoples and cultures A way of life “polytheistic” BUT “Brahman” is 1 spiritual force represented through many gods

33 Hinduism B. Basic Beliefs:
Reincarnation- rebirth of the soul into another form based on behavior of present life Karma- actions of life that will affect fate in the next life Dharma-religious and moral duties Caste System-rigid social ranking 3 Major Gods- BRAHMA (the Creator) VISHNU (the Preserver) SHIVA (the Destroyer)

34 In the Hindu Trinity of Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva, the Hindu god Vishnu is the preserver and protector of creation. (Vishnu is the embodiment of mercy and goodness and represents the omnipresent power that preserves the universe and maintains the cosmic order)

35 Hinduism Cow: sacred animal
C. Sacred Texts: VEDAS and Upanishads contain the central Hindu teachings Bhagavad-Gita has ethical ideas central to Hinduism D. Customs: Ahisma: (nonviolence) all living things are aspects of brahman and deserve respect Caste system: rigid social ranking, outlawed but still “there” Ganges River: sacred river, “River= Soul” Cow: sacred animal Dietary restrictions: Hindus do not eat beef/cow

36 Hinduism Mostly India and a few other Asian nations
E. Spread/Influence: Mostly India and a few other Asian nations Influenced Buddhism (founder was a Hindu prince) Symbols part of popular culture

37 Symbols and Images of Buddhism
1. 3. 2. 4. 5.


39 The Dharma Wheel (wheel of life) has eight spokes, signifying each of the steps in the Eightfold path.

40 II. Buddhism A. Origins : Siddharta Gautama “the enlightened one” (Buddha) founded it in India It spread to China, Tibet, Korea,….not popular in India B. Basic Beliefs: Life is a cycle of death and rebirth NIRVANA: state of bliss/escape from cycle of rebirth Religion does NOT stress the belief in a supreme being or in powerful gods *personal enlightenment is the goal and it comes from WITHIN each person

41 Buddhism “All living holds suffering”
C. Sacred Texts: Tripitaka is the Buddhist holy book with the core beliefs of the Buddha…. *Four Noble Truths* “All living holds suffering” “Suffering is related to/caused by GREED” “Suffering ends when GREED stops” “Stop Greed by living a proper life”……by following the eightfold path

42 One lives a proper life by following the 8 fold path……
“Understand the 4 noble truths” and “commit to he 8 fold path” “Live a moral life, avoid evil words and actions” “Meditate to achieve enlightenment” Right views Right aspirations Right speech Right conduct Right livelihood Right effort Right mindfulness Right contemplation

43 Buddhism D. Customs: No formal places of worship Individual religion More “open” and accepting of all humans regardless of social position *equal opportunity religion* because it is really a quest for “self-understanding” Influence/Spread of Buddhism: China, Tibet, Korea and Japan E.


45 Images and symbols of: Judaism

46 Judaism


48 III. Judaism Origins: Hebrews were first people to worship a single, all powerful god (MONOTHEISM) Judaism began 4,000 years ago Founder was Abraham around 1300 BC B. Basic Beliefs: One God Covenant: promise between God and Hebrews that God would love and protect Hebrews if they obeyed his laws LAWFULNESS: God established moral laws and agrees to be fair to those who obey them

49 III. Judaism History: idea that God is changing the world and leading humanity to a better life Sabbath: special day of rest and prayer Jews observe it from dusk on Friday through Saturday C. Sacred Text: Torah A group of ancient writings called the Old Testament that tells the story


51 Christianity

52 Christianity Basic Beliefs Monotheistic faith based on Judaism
Certain basic beliefs shared with Judaism: Only one God (MONOTHEISM) Live after Death People are equal before God History is in Old Testament

53 Christianity Basic Beliefs Unique to Christianity
That the prophet Jesus of Nazareth was the Son of God That the birth, life, death and resurrection of Jesus was a sacrifice for the forgiveness of human sin Jesus’ message was that people should love each other as God loves them all 53

54 Christianity Sacred Text: Holy Bible
Consists of the Hebrew Old Testament And the New Testament (66 books and gospels) Controversial history of eliminating other books from the “final draft” of the Bible Many councils met to codify (write down) official Christian doctrine and eliminate alternative teachings

55 Christianity Spread and Influence
After years of persecution and executions of Christians, it becomes the official religion of the Roman Empire and spreads through Europe Becomes a global religion with over a billion people belonging to any of the many Christian Churches

56 Catholic Split within Christianity
Parish priests, bishops, cardinals, …POPE Head of the church: Patriarch members of the clergy could not marry Priest can marry Latin -- language of the Church & learning Liturgy delivered in Greek Excommunication: those who chose to ignore the orders of the Church would be “kicked out” Use of Icons debated Catholic Eastern Orthodox



59 Islam 59

60 Islam Origins: Followers are called Muslims
The prophet Muhammad founded it in the holy city of Mecca (Saudi Arabia) in 610 AD Message of Allah (GOD) revealed to Mohammad by the Angel Gabriel

61 Islam Basic Beliefs: Monotheistic
Accept the revelations of earlier prophets: Abraham, Moses and Jesus Muhammad is the last and greatest of the prophets All people are equal before God (not racist) All Muslims must follow the 5 pillars

62 Islam: 5 pillars or beliefs
Belief in ONE true God (Allah) Pray 5 times a day Alms (charity) to the poor Fast (no food or drink) from dawn to dusk during the month of Ramadan Make a hajj (sacred visit/pilgrimage) to Mecca

63 Islam Sacred Text is the Koran (Qur'an)
The sound of the Koran being called from a tower is the first and last thing a Muslim hears everyday of their lives Koran provides an outline for creating a JUST life : worship, laws, family, behaviors, work, business practices, economic systems, etc

64 Islam Customs: traditional toleration for both Jews and Christians as “people of the book” Ceremony in Mecca is walking around the Kaaba (shrine with a sacred black stone) No special day of rest, but Fridays all males must attend prayers at a mosque

65 Islam Customs Art does not picture man or God but lots of geometric shapes and patterns Religion is separation of religion and government or law Called “Sharia” or divine law by strict Islamic states Dietary Restrictions: no pork , alcohol or drugs Life and property of all citizens in an Islamic country are sacred whether the person is Muslim or not

66 Islam Spread/Influence of Islam:
Approx. 1 billion Muslims (more NON-ARAB muslims than Arab) During 7th and 12th centuries Muslims had great economic and political power as Islam spread in major trade zones from Africa to Asia Linked by Arabic language, currency, and faith “History of religious conflict with Jews and Christians marked by cooperation and conflict”

67 Shintoism*

68 Shintoism Ancient (500 BC) religion unique to Japan
Mixture of nature worship, fertility cults, divination techniques, hero worship, and shamanism Comes from Chinese words “Shin Tao” or “The way of the Gods” Shinto has no real founder, no written scriptures, no body of religious law, and only a very loosely-organized priesthood

69 Shintoism “Kami” are gods that created the Japanese Islands
Shinto gods are not like the God of monotheistic religions, they are related to nature/food/water Also are abstract and creative energies Believed that the imperial rulers of Japan were descended from these gods Most Shinto believers are followers of Confuciansim


71 “Cultural Diffusion” and religion
Buddhism + Taoism = ZEN Buddhism Hinduism + Sufism = Sikhism Roman Catholicism + traditional African religions (Yoruba in Nigeria)= Santeria

72 Ancient Greece and Rome
Contributions of Ancient Greece and Rome

73 “Classical” Heritage “Classical” for Western people almost always means “Greek & Roman” heritage of literature, art, architecture or ideals “Classical ___X___” …China, India, Islamic, Maya, etc. simply refers to the age when the traditional features of those cultures emerge

74 CLASSICAL Philosophy and Government of the Greeks and Romans
DEMOCRACY: Demos + Kratos (political power in the hands of the people…who “matter”) Ideas about government and society: Socrates, Plato & Aristotle Value of Education

75 Art What VALUES are evident in the sculpture that represent GREEK art and architecture? Describe the man. What is he doing? Why is what he is doing important to the ancient Greeks?

76 Architecture What Greek Values do you see in these columns? Doric
Ionic Corinthian

77 Greek & Roman Architecture styles are still used today to elicit “Classical” memories of great ideas about balance, harmony and sound government

78 Empire of Alexander the Great

79 Roman Heritage: Builds on Greek Heritage
Early laws like in Twelve Tables develop into a body of Roman civil law that only applied to Roman CITIZENS Later, they expanded law to deal with non-citizens and “others” (Law of Nations) Established standards for justice we still recognize today


81 After the “FALL of Rome”
Heritage of Government & Law Classical Ruins to remind people of past Greatness LATIN Roman Catholic Church

82 African Kingdoms and trade

83 North Africa “Warfare and Trade brought about Cultural Diffusion”
Under Roman rule, (Christianity, roads, dams, aqueducts, and cities grew across the region.) Camels brought from Asia revolutionized trade across the Sahara. In the 600s, Arab armies replaced Christianity with Islam and Arabic became the primary language of business (lingua franca)

84 African Empires Nubia Axum Ghana Mali Songhai Great Zimbabwe

85 Trading Gold and Salt Gold was plentiful in the West African savanna.
Salt, which people need in their diet to prevent dehydration in the Savanna. West Africans traded gold to North Africa and for salt. (weight)

86 Camels “Ships of the Desert”

87 African Trade Problem: In ancient times, the Egyptians engaged in just a trickle of commercial trade with west Africa, even though West Africa was rich in gold, precious metals, ivory, salt, and other resources. Why: The reason for this was the imposing barrier of the Sahara, which in Arabic simply means "The Desert." Solution: The camel is the only animal to have replaced the wheel (mainly in North Africa) where the wheel had already been established. The camel did not lose that distinction until the wheel was combined with the internal combustion engine in the 20th century.

88 Why Camels? Characteristics: Keep their footing in sliding sand
Go a long time without water Patient beasts Run very fast Carry unbelievably heavy loads for impossibly long distances

89 Characteristics continued
They have a thick coat that aids them in desert-like conditions. They have large stores of fat which provide energy. Their long legs help by keeping them further from the hot ground. Their mouth is very sturdy, able to chew thorny desert plants. Long eyelashes and ear hairs, together with sealable nostrils, form a barrier against sand The kidneys and intestines of a camel are very efficient at retaining water.

90 A Growing Economy Trade has played an important role in the economy of West Africa since very early times. As early as 300 AD, camel caravans carried salt from mines in the Sahara Desert to trading centers along the Niger River in present-day Mali. Their mission was to exchange the salt for the gold that was mined in forests near the headwaters of the Niger. West Africa's first kingdom, Ghana, became wealthy and powerful because it controlled the trade routes and commercial activities in its region.

91 The Spread of Religion The spread of Islam across North Africa in the 7th century dramatically increased trans-Saharan trade. As the market expanded, strategically sited towns became major centers of commerce, welcoming merchants from distant lands. Merchants transported more than valuable commodities along the trans-Saharan routes. Just as Buddhism reached the Chinese Empire via Indian merchants travelling the Silk Road, Islam reached black West Africa through Arab Merchants on Saharan caravan routes. During the Ghana, Mali, and Songhay empires Arab merchants brought the Koran and the written language Arabic to the traditionally oral cultures each empire encompassed.

92 Trade Routes The Saharan Trade extended from the Sub-Saharan West African kingdoms across the Sahara desert to Europe. The Saharan Trade linked such African empires as Ghana, Mali, and Songhay to the European world. Merchants established a second major gold-salt trade route northeast across the Sahara that passed through Tunis, and Cairo, and ended in Egypt's interior. This route complimented the traditional Western Sudan-- Maghreb--Europe trade route. As the second trade route grew in popularity, Egypt's influence on the Western Sudan grew as well.

93 Trade Route

94 Contributions of Empires of India and China

95 Zhou Dynasty-- (pronounced Joew)
Ruled northern China BC to 256 BC Government-- Religion-- Accomplishments-- Education-- Feudal State --(Emperor/ Lords/ Warriors/ Peasants) Mandate of Heaven - right to rule Polytheism Daoism/Taoism - live in harmony Confucius was born during the Zhou Dynasty. Expert silk makers and iron working

96 Liu Bang and Wudi ruled according to Confucianism Civil Service Test
Han Dynasty Ruled part of modern China into Korea (202 BC - 220AD) Government-- Religion -- Accomplishments-- Education-- Liu Bang and Wudi ruled according to Confucianism Civil Service Test Polytheism Buddhism enters China Silk Road, Paper, Porcelain, Fishing Reel, and Stirrups Advances in Zoology, Botany, Chemistry, Anesthetics, and Acupuncture

97 Confucianism Chinese Philosophies China’s most influential philosopher
Concerned with social order and good government Honest, hard work, and concern for others it important. The best ruler and was a virtuous man who led by example Filial Piety– The Analects-- Confucius People accept their place in society Belief that people were naturally good Respect for one’s parent was put above all other duties Confucius sayings written down.

98 Daoism/Taoism Chinese Religion Laozi was the founder
Focused on the Dao -the way of the universe Daoism turned into a popular religion with gods, goddesses, and magical practices Wanted everyone to live in harmony with nature Rejected the world of conflict Viewed government as unnatural



101 MARCO POLO VENETIAN TRADER (from Venics Italy) gone 17 YEARS




105 Japan’s Culture BUSHIDO CODE OF VALUES

106 Medieval Europe, Russia & Ancient America

107 Rome Divided (Diocletian)
Western Roman Empire Falls to Barbarians - Germanic Tribes Byzantine Empire Thrives for another 900 yrs

108 Germanic Tribes Invade
Western Roman Empire Constantinople

109 Byzantine Empire Old Greek Seaport _________________—connecting—Black Sea and the Mediterranean Controlled trade route between_______________ Constantine renamed Byzantium to ____________ Constantinople (rich, beautiful, and majestic-The City)--known an _________ today Bosporus Strait Constantinople Istanbul Europe and Asia

110 Justinian Almost destroyed Rome--regain control _______________________(Roman Laws) “Corpus Juris Civilis”-- _____________ ___________________________________ Hagia Sophia (______________) --Church Justinian Code of Laws Body of Civil Law Influenced Western Europe Holy Wisdom

111 Hagia Sophia– ___________________ Icons– religious pictures (______)
Mosaics– ________________ arched dome cathedral Jesus marbles tiles


Byzantine Art & Architecture St Cyril -- Greek monk 3. Created alphabet for Slavs -- Russian(_________) alphabet Eastern Orthodox religion Cyrillic

114 Ancient American Civilizations
Maya Aztec Inca Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico and Central America Mexico Andes Mountains of South America

115 Maya Government Aztec Government Inca Religion Polytheism
_ _______ Aztec Government _____________ (_____________) – 300, 000 people He ruled 11,000,000 Inca Government ____________and _________ (cities) Machu Picchu Religion Polytheism Made sacrifices _______________ Made sacrifices to their gods ________________ Sapa Incas (emperor – descended from the___________) Chichen Itza & Tikal Emperor Emperor King Tenochtitlan Governors Pyramid like Temples Settled (myth) Sun God

116 Maya Aztec Inca Achievements form of___________ writing number system
based upon the concept of_______ created a calendar with _____days form of ______________ based upon units of ________ calendar for agriculture and religious rites __________were complex color- coded bunches of knotted strings used to keep an accurate account of goods and the workforce constructed nearly 12,000 _____________ quipu hieroglyphic hieroglyphic ten zero 365 miles of roads

117 “Follow the Wealth”

118 3 Crusades, 1096–1204 Holy Land

119 Spread of the Black Death
5 bubonic plague By 1347, the _________________had spread to Europe. Over a 3 year period _____of the population in Europe was wiped out Cause - Rats from Asia ___________________carry the disease through trade and ships to Europe. 1/3 infested with fleas

120 The Black Death Caused Social and Economic Decline.
5 Social Effects Economic Effects production Fewer workers higher wages _____________ Landowners abandoned farming (villagers - towns) peasants_________ _______________ punished (God) end inevitable (Enjoy) Normal life broke down. .___________________ ___________________ witchcraft (Inflation) Christians blamed and persecuted Jews revolted

121 The Renaissance Circa 1300 to 1600 AD/CE
Period of creativity and change Economic Political Social cultural Features: Greek and Roman culture is revived and appreciated Focus shift from GOD to MAN “HUMANISM” “REAL-ISM” in general

122 The Renaissance People saw themselves and their world differently
(more like the Greeks/Romans) Life NOW is as important as the life AFTER DEATH “Multi-talents” are encouraged and valued

123 The Renaissance Why did it begin in Italy? Geography =sea access
Economic activity in cities Capitalism increases demand for skilled labor Roman past

124 What Was the Renaissance?
1 Renaissance thinkers explored the human experience in the________________. They emphasized_____________________________. The Renaissance ideal was the person with talent in many fields (da Vinci) At the heart of the Italian Renaissance was an intellectual movement known as humanism. Humanism was based on the study of classical culture and focused on worldly subjects rather than on religious issues. here and now individual achievement

125 Why Did the Renaissance Begin in Italy ?
1 Why Did the Renaissance Begin in Italy ? Florence, Venice, and Genoa _______________________________ Had access to trade routes connecting ____________________________markets Served as trading centers for the distribution of goods to ______________ Were initially independent ___________ governed as republics Europe with Middle Eastern northern Europe city-states

126 Machiavelli: New view of Politics
Fear is more powerful than love The end justifies the means Do good when possible, but do not avoid evil

127 Machiavelli’s -____________
The Prince An early modern treatise on____________ Supported _________________of the ruler Maintains that “the end justifies the means” Advises that one should do good if possible, but ___________________________ government absolute power do evil when necessary

128 Three Geniuses of The Italian Renaissance
1 DaVinci MICHELANGELO Petrarch Masterpieces include Mona Lisa and The Last Supper Studied botany, anatomy, optics, music, architecture, and engineering Made sketches for flying machines and undersea boats Talented sculptor, engineer, painter, architect, and poet Sculpted the Pieta and statue of David Painted huge mural to decorate the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in Rome Wrote sonnets in Italian and Latin—14-line poems

129 Leonardo Da Vinci

130 Leonardo Da Vinci The Last Supper

131 Leonardo Da Vinci “Mona Lisa”

132 Leonardo Da Vinci “Vitruvian Man”

133 Popular 21st century references:
Leonardo Da Vinci Popular 21st century references:

134 Michelangelo’s “Pieta”

135 Michelangelo “David”

136 Michelangelo Sistine Chapel ceiling

137 Botticelli “Birth of Venus”

138 Botticelli “Primavera”

139 Botticelli “Youth”

140 Erasmus Northern humanist In Praise of Folly

141 Renaissance Artists and Writers Explored New Themes and Techniques
1 Wrote self-help books to help ambitious men and women rise in the Renaissance world Rejected Gothic style Adopted columns, domes, and arches that had been favored by the Greeks and Romans Developed realistic Style Learned rules of perspective Used shading to make objects look round and real Studied human anatomy Used live models WRITERS ARCHITECTS PAINTERS

142 Northern Renaissance Growing wealth in Northern Europe Supported Renaissance ideas Thinkers merged humanist ideas with Christianity Northern Renaissance writers ____________— In Praise of Folly (1511) ___________________— Utopia (1516) Erasmus Sir Thomas More

143 The Printing Revolution
2 A printing revolution took place when: In 1456, Johann Gutenberg printed the Bible using the first printing press and printing inks. Movable type was developed twenty years later. IMPACT: Printed books were___________________________. With books more readily available, more people learned to read in their own languages (____________) Readers gained access to a broad range of knowledge and ideas. cheaper and easier to produce vernacular

144 Usury: practice of lending $$$ for interest
The Church considered USURY a SIN Increasing merchant wealth changed the Church policy and more Christians became bankers

145 The Protestant Reformation (1450-1565)
End of Religious Unity and Universality in the West Attack on the medieval church— Not the first attempt at reform Word “Protestant” is first used for dissenting German princes who met at the Diet of Speyer in 1529

146 I. The Church’s Problems
Charges of greed Obvious corruption Worldly (secular) political power challenged Growing human confidence vs. “original sin”

147 I. The Church’s Problems (cont)
The corruption of the Renaissance Papacy --Rodrigo Borgia(Alexander VI) European population was increasingly anti-clerical Absenteeism of church leaders The controversy over the sale of indulgences

148 Cultural aspects Better educated people were more critical of the Church Monarchs resent growing political power of the Church Society was more humanistic and secular Growing individualism --John Wycliffe in England --Jan Huss in Bohemia

149 Individuals BEFORE Martin Luther
John Wycliffe England, late 1300s Parliament vs. Rome over $$$$$$ “Church people should be POOR!” Posthumously called a heretic Bones were burned/scattered Jan Huss Bohemia, early 1400s Great Schism/pope selection Excommunicated for insubordination Burned at the stake in 1415

150 Significance of the Printing Press
Invention of movable type was invented in 1450 by Johann Gutenberg Manufacture of paper becomes easier and cheaper Helped spread ideas before Catholics could squash them Intensified intellectual criticism of the Church Protestant ideals appealed to the urban and the literate

151 Spiritual Aspects Growing piety, mysticism and religious zeal among European masses Dutch Christian humanist Erasmus inadvertently undermines the Church from within --In Praise of Folly (1510) Call for a translation of the New Testament into Greek Call for a return to the simplicity of the early Church

152 The Holy Roman Empire Decentralized politics
Pope successfully challenged the monarch here New HRE, a Habsburg, Charles V, is young, politically insecure and attempting to govern a huge realm during the critical years of Luther’s protest Charles V faced outside attacks from France and the Turks Circumstances favor Luther

153 A. Germany (Northern) Luther troubled by the sale of indulgences
Dominican friar Tetzel was selling indulgences in Wittenberg in 1517 Luther posts his 95 theses on the door of the castle church in Wittenberg on October 31, 1517 Some of Luther’s complaints Luther slowly but surely is drawn into a heated debate

154 Germany (Northern) Luther attacks the Pope and his bull of excommunication Constraints against the spread of Luther’s ideas The Peace of Augsburg, 1555 The Protestant Reformation further divided Germany

155 Luther’s Teachings Salvation by Faith Alone
Bible :THE source of religious authority --Luther’s German Translation of the New Testament The Priesthood (Equality) of All Believers --Peasant Revolt of 1525 Some latent (hidden/leftover) Catholicism

156 Zurich, Switzerland Urban, cosmopolitan setting
Zwingli also opposed many Catholic ideas: fasting during Lent, purgatory, clerical celibacy, intercession of the saints, and salvation by work Fought with other Protestants groups Killed, cut up & burned

157 John Calvin: Background
More of a scholar than Luther More of a systematic thinker than Luther Calvin’s Institutes (1536) Early legal training Clear-cut moral directives for living Relied on the Bible for religious authority

158 Background Desire to return to the primitive, first-century Church
High standard of morality valued and pursued Bitterly persecuted by both Catholics and other Protestants

159 Teaching Free will—all can be saved Adult, “believer” baptism
Social and economic equality Pacifism Separation of Church and State

160 Teachings Predestination The right of rebellion --English Civil War
More of a stress on works than Luther Government serves the Church “Just” war position

161 The CALVINIST Tradition:
John Calvin’s leadership in Geneva from PREDESTINATION Stress on order and rigorous adherence to God’s law faith revealed by living a righteous life, work ethic Set up a “theocracy” Self-discipline and the “Protestant Work Ethic” Actions: Expanded the Protestant Movement

162 Before Reformation in England
Notion of the Renaissance Prince Recent War of the Roses created a sense of political instability for the Tudor dynasty --Henry VIII The significance of a male heir to the Tudors

163 England during Reign of Henry VIII
Henry VIII’s marriage to Catherine of Aragon (Spanish Catholic) Henry seeks an annulment Henry creates the PROTESTANT Church of England and establishes his own supremacy over it A “political reformation” only at first

164 Reformation in England
Henry VIII”s views: Dismissed the authority of the Pope in Rome ACTIONS: Divorced broke with Rome headed the national church in England Appropriated (took for himself) lands and wealth of the Catholic churches in England

165 Reformation in England (cont)
The reign of “Bloody” Mary I (kills Protestants) Elizabeth I (Protestant): firmly establishes England as a PROTESTANT NATION

166 France King Francis I was initially sympathetic to Luther as long as his Protestant ideas stayed in Germany Protestantism was made illegal in France in 1534 Persecution of the Huguenots St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre King Henry IV and the Edict of Nantes (1598)

167 E. Other Parts of Western Europe
No Protestant inroads into Spain or Italy urban success and where supported by the nobility After 1540, no new Protestant territories outside of the Netherlands Most powerful European nations were Catholic Protestants were feuding with each other


169 V. The Counter-Reformation: The Catholic Response
Jesuit Order Reform papacy Council of Trent …Inquisition

170 Elements of the Counter-Reformation
The Society of Jesus (Jesuits) established by Spanish nobleman Ignatius of Loyola Loyal to pope Spread Catholicism Role back Protestantism

171 Elements of the Counter-Reformation
Council of Trent ( ): decrees reaffirmed traditional Catholic teachings Faith AND good works were necessary for salvation Seven sacraments Catholic view of Eucharist Clerical celibacy Purgatory was REAL Indulgences could be given, but not SOLD!

172 Elements of the Counter-Reformation
“The Inquisition”

173 Results of the Reformation
Germany was politically weakened and fragmented Peace of Augsburg 1555 ends 100 Years of Political Religious Warfare in Germany Furthered feelings of individualism and secularism Growing doubt and religious skepticism

174 Results of Reformation (cont)
Political stability valued over religious truth Calvinism boosted the commercial revolution Focus on the individual fostered “capitalistic instincts” for hard work and risk taking The Reformation contributed to the rise of capitalism. Witch craze swept Europe in the 1600’s --Between , MANY people were executed as witches


176 Important Areas of Concern
Russia England France Aztec Empire Persia Spain China Ottoman Empire Songhai Empire Mayan Empire Mughal India Incan Empire Important Areas of Concern

177 Be familiar with the terms:
Be able to discuss the differences and similarities in the BELIEFS of Luther and Calvin Be familiar with the terms: Huguenots Presbyterians Puritans

178 Vocab + GEOG? Can you place every VOCAB term on the map?
Can you connect 3+ terms? Can you locate major empires AND determine the RELIGION at 1500 AND contemporary locations? Can you discuss all 10 Comps questions without notes?

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