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The Religions of the World Notes & Religion Book.

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1 The Religions of the World Notes & Religion Book

2 What is religion? Religion is a person’s relationship with what he or she considers to be a higher power. All religions worship a god or gods. The teachings of religions tell people who follow them how they should live in the world. Lastly, most religions have a written scripture, a system of practices, and recommended ways of worship. The 5 major religions we will be discussing are Judaism, Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam, and Christianity.

3 Key Religious Terms: Deity: divine character or nature, esp. that of the Supreme Being; divinity. Disciple: a person who is a pupil or an adherent of the doctrines of another; follower Clergy: The body of people ordained for religious service. Ministers, Priest, Monks, Rabbis, Gurus, Brahmans. Scripture: any writing or book, esp. when of a sacred or religious nature Prophet: a person who speaks for a god or a deity, or by divine inspiration

4 More Key Terms: Fasting: To eat very little or abstain from certain foods, especially as a religious discipline Resurrection: The act of rising from the dead or returning to life. Reincarnation: To be reborn in a new life. Meditation: contemplation of spiritual matters (usually on religious or philosophical subjects). Pilgrimage: a long journey made to some sacred place as an act of religious devotion.

5 Religions by number of followers: : Number of members per religion: Christianity: 1.9 Billion Islam: 1 Billion Hinduism: 793 Million Buddhism: 300 Million Judaism: 14 Million

6 Chronological Listing of Religions Judaism: 2,000 B.C. Hinduism: 1,500 B.C. Buddhism: 500 B.C. Christianity: 1 st Century A.D. Islam: 600 A.D.

7 Judaism Judaism was the first religion based on worship of only one god (monotheism). It began in the Middle East around 2,000 B.C. Jews believe that God selected them to set an example of good and ethical behavior for the world. Judaism is the religion in which Christianity and Islam grew out of. The holy book of Judaism is the Torah, which is the first 5 books of the Hebrew Bible.

8 Judaism Judaism and its history are based around the city of Canaan, which is present day Israel. Jews were exiled from Canaan at a point in history, and the people and religion spread to other parts of the world. Called the Diaspora. Jewish people maintained their religion and cultural practices while living in other countries and around other cultures.

9 Judaism Major religious holiday: Rosh Hashanah: The Jewish New Year Yom Kippur: Day of Atonement.

10 Christianity Founded in the 1 st Century A.D. Jesus Christ is the founder of Christianity. All Christians follow the life and teachings of Jesus Christ. Christians live by a set of ethical rules known as the Ten Commandments. The holy book of Christianity is the Bible.

11 Christianity The Bible was written by disciples, or followers, of Christ. Christianity, Islam, and Judaism all believe that Jesus lived. Christianity, however, believes that Jesus Christ was the son of God. Judaism and Islam believe Jesus was a prophet. Today, practicing Christians make up 33% of the world population. There have been many splits in the Christian church, which has created many denominations. Catholic, Protestant, Baptist, ETC.

12 Christianity Major religious holidays: Christmas: Commemorates the birth of Jesus Christ. Easter: Commemorates the resurrection of Jesus Christ.

13 Islam Followers of the Islam religion are known as Muslims. The Muslim religion began in present day Middle East. Muslims are monotheistic (meaning they believe in one god.) The Muslim god is called Allah. Muslims study the teachings of Allah through their holy book the Koran (Quran). Islam was founded on the life and teachings of a prophet named Muhammad. This was around 600 AD.

14 Islam The Muslim religion is based on the “5 Pillars of Islam.” These are: Faith Prayer Charity Fasting Hajj (A trip that all Muslims must make to Mecca, the holy Muslim city.)

15 Islam Major religious holidays: Ramadan: The Islamic holy month commemorating when god first revealed himself to the prophet Muhammad.

16 Islam Today Today, over 20% of the world population are Muslims. Muslims are required to pray 5 times a day, and they must face the direction of Mecca (The holy city.)

17 Hinduism Hinduism came into being in ancient India around 1,500 B.C. It began as a set of traditions and rituals honoring various gods and goddesses. Today, there are hundreds of major gods and thousands of minor gods. Hinduism believes in the rebirth, or reincarnation. The holy book of the Hindu are numerous sacred writings.

18 Hinduism Hinduism encourages people to achieve righteous living, prosperity, love, and happiness. Hinduism is based on the caste system. Hindus believe in non-violence and tolerance, reincarnation, and karma. The caste system is a social structure in which classes are determined by heredity. According to Hinduism, karma is a force that determines how you will be reborn in your next life, depending on how you behave in this life.

19 Buddhism Like Hinduism, Buddhism was founded in ancient India. The holy book is the Tripitika. The clergy is made of monks and ministers. Buddhism started in 500 B.C., 1000 years after Hinduism. The founder, Siddhartha Gautama, because known as the Buddha. Buddha means “the enlightened one.” Buddhism emphasizes the actions of the individual.

20 Buddhism Individuals are encouraged to follow the Eight-Fold-Path Like Hindus, the Buddhist believe in non- violence, karma, and rebirth. Buddhist practice the art of meditation.

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