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Renaissance and Revolution Ancient Rome to 1700’s.

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Presentation on theme: "Renaissance and Revolution Ancient Rome to 1700’s."— Presentation transcript:

1 Renaissance and Revolution Ancient Rome to 1700’s

2 Glory of ancient Rome Augustus-first Roman emperor Pax Romana-peace in Rome for over 200 years. Accomplishments: written laws, aqueducts, roads, and bridges. Hundreds of years of warfare followed Pax Romana. Western empire gradually broke apart.

3 Europe in Middle Ages Christian faith-as the empire fell apart, the people of Europe drew strength from Christianity. In such dark times, faith was like a welcoming light. Feudalism-a way to organize society when there is no central government. Lords ruled the local areas. Lords swore loyalty to king. Lord owned land called a manor. Crops, taxes, maintained order and enforced laws, protected the serfs (people who lived and worked on the land)

4 What Was the Renaissance? The Renaissance was a time when creative thinking and new technology helped people to more accurately understand their world. Renaissance thinkers explored new worlds and reexamined old ones. Humanists based their studies on the classical cultures of Greece and Rome.

5 Section 1: The Renaissance in Italy Italy: The Cradle of the Renaissance The Renaissance started in Italy and spread throughout Europe. The Roman Catholic Church and merchants who had grown rich from trade financed the creation of works of art.

6 What was the Renaissance? A.A changing world view 1. Reawakened interest in classical Greece and Rome 2. New emphasis on human experience and Individual achievement B. A spirit of Adventure 1. Looked at universe in new ways 2. Experimented with new forms and techniques C. The Growth of humanism 1. Study of classical Greece and Rome to understand their own times 2. Emphasis on humanities- Rhetoric, poetry, and history

7 II. Italy: Cradle of Renaissance A.Italy’s history and geography 1.Rome the seat of Catholic Church, an important patron of the arts 2.Location encouraged trade with markets in Mediterranean and Africa 3.Center of the Roman Empire B. Italy’s vibrant city-states 1.Each city- state controlled by a powerful family and dominated by wealthy merchants 2.Florence was a symbol of the energy and brilliance of the Italian Renaissance

8 III. Renaissance art and artists flower A.Reflecting humanist thought 1.Portrayed well-known figures of the day 2.Revived many classical forms B. New artistic techniques 1.Invented perspective 2.Drew From live models C. Architecture became a “social art” 1.Meant to blend beauty with utility and improvement of society 2.Adopted columns, arches and domes favored by Greeks and Romans

9 The Italian Renaissance -Key Concepts-

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11 III. Renaissance Economics Profit-making became more important than Church doctrine To overcome guilt, profit- makers indulge in philanthropy Influence of guilds declining High profits led to economic diversification

12 III. Renaissance Economics “Cottage Industry”- An industry where the creation of products and services is home- based, rather than factory-based. Art became the way to advertise economic success (Bling, Bling Baby) Increased commercial competition created the need to be efficient

13 IV. Renaissance Society Art started to focus on the individual Humanism- studied the classical culture of Greece and Rome to understand their own time. Focused on worldly subjects rather than on the Religious Issues Humanities- subjects such as grammar, rhetoric (the study of using language effectively), poetry, and history. Focus on man’s free will

14 V. Renaissance Politics Niccolo Machiavelli ( ) -- “The Prince” The goal of the prince must be power Cynical view of human nature Fear is a better motivator than affection Politics as the art of deception

15 VI. Renaissance Art and Architecture The depiction of nudes Imitation of nature was a primary goal Pagan scenes and myths were popular subjects with no apologies to the Church

16 VI. Renaissance Art and Architecture (cont) Boticelli’s “Birth of Venus” Status of artist is elevated to cultural hero Renaissance art stressed proportion, balance and harmony—and was not otherworldly Artistic problems of perspective and composition addressed

17 VI. Renaissance Art and Architecture These problems were solved by emphasizing the mathematical side of painting --Brunelleschi’s “linear perspective” Linear perspective is a mathematical system for creating the illusion of space and distance on a flat surface. The system originated in Florence, Italy in the early 1400s. The artist and architect Brunelleschi demonstrated its principles, but another architect and writer, Leon Battista Alberti was first to write down rules of linear perspective for artists to follow Innovations in Renaissance painting

18 - “chiaroscuro ” is defined as a bold contrast between light and dark. contrastlightdark

19 Sfumato is the Italian term for a painting technique which overlays translucent layers of colour to create perceptions of depth, volume and form. In particular, it refers to the blending of colours or tones so subtly that there is no perceptible transition.painting

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22 VI. Renaissance Art and Architecture (cont) Raphael ( ) Man of great sensitivity and kindness Died at the age of 37 “The School of Athens” Famous for frescoes in the Vatican Palace

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28 VI. Renaissance Art and Architecture (cont) Leonardo Da Vinci ( ) True Renaissance Man Scientist, inventor, engineer and naturalist Dissected Corpses Short attention span

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35 VI. Renaissance Art and Architecture (cont) Michelangelo Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel Conflict with Pope Julius II Incredible energy and endurance

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44 VI. Renaissance Art and Architecture (cont) Mannerism’s greatest representative: El Greco ( ) Romanesque architecture was revived in Renaissance building projects Brunelleschi’s Church of San Lorenzo

45 VII. Renaissance Education and Philosophy Humanistic age Various types of humanism Great fervor displayed in finding and collecting old documents Leads to critical examination of documents --Lorenzo Valla Education produces moral uplift

46 VII. Renaissance Education and Philosophy (cont) A true liberal education Humanist education for women Love for the study of history most of all A Greek language fad after 1454 Petrarch ( ): the Father of Italian Renaissance humanism Focus on the individual and his dignity

47 VII. Renaissance Education and Philosophy (cont) First influenced secondary education Extreme vanity of Renaissance scholars The importance of law and rhetoric in Renaissance education Classical political ideals were cultivated Knowledge needed to be useful

48 VIII. The Renaissance Papacy Loss of influence over European nation-states Decline in moral prestige and leadership Pope Julius II ( ) Popes as patrons of Renaissance art --Leo X ( )

49 IX. Spread of Humanism to the Rest of Europe The significance of Gutenberg’s printing press Explosion of printed materials --By 1500, 40,000 titles printed and between 8-10 million copies The impact of movable- type printing presses: research and literacy

50 IX. Spread of Humanism to the Rest of Europe (cont) Popular publications in the early days of the printing press Thomas More --Utopia --Executed by Henry VIII in 1535 Erasmus—Dutch Christian Humanist

51 IX. Spread of Humanism to the Rest of Europe (cont) William Shakespeare ( ) --Globe Theater Shakespeare returns to classical subjects and genres His history plays were the most popular at the time Macbeth: ambition Hamlet: individualism Keen sensitivity to sounds and meanings of words


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