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The Italian Renaissance -Key Concepts-. I. Why in Italy at this Time? Revival of Commerce and Town Building was more intense in Italy Revival of Commerce.

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Presentation on theme: "The Italian Renaissance -Key Concepts-. I. Why in Italy at this Time? Revival of Commerce and Town Building was more intense in Italy Revival of Commerce."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Italian Renaissance -Key Concepts-

2 I. Why in Italy at this Time? Revival of Commerce and Town Building was more intense in Italy Revival of Commerce and Town Building was more intense in Italy Feudalism had less of a grip on Italy Feudalism had less of a grip on Italy Two competing lords for control of Italy were losing influence Two competing lords for control of Italy were losing influence Presence of antiquity was stronger in Italy than elsewhere in Europe Presence of antiquity was stronger in Italy than elsewhere in Europe

3 II. European Economic Recovery Dramatic recovery of European commerce Dramatic recovery of European commerce Important industries flourish in Northern Italy Important industries flourish in Northern Italy The significance of printing and mining as new industries The significance of printing and mining as new industries The fifteenth-century banking empire of the Medici family in Florence The fifteenth-century banking empire of the Medici family in Florence

4 III. Renaissance Economics Profit-making became more important than Church doctrine Profit-making became more important than Church doctrine To overcome guilt, profit- makers indulge in philanthropy To overcome guilt, profit- makers indulge in philanthropy Influence of guilds declining Influence of guilds declining High profits led to economic diversification High profits led to economic diversification

5 III. Renaissance Economics (cont) Cottage Industry Cottage Industry Art became the way to advertise economic success Art became the way to advertise economic success Intensified commercial competition created the need to be efficient Intensified commercial competition created the need to be efficient

6 IV. Renaissance Society Renaissance is an elitist historical phenomenon Renaissance is an elitist historical phenomenon Northern Italy was urban and commercial while Southern Italy mostly was not Northern Italy was urban and commercial while Southern Italy mostly was not Very family-oriented society Very family-oriented society Marriages were frequently arranged to strengthen business ties Marriages were frequently arranged to strengthen business ties

7 IV. Renaissance Society (cont) Fathers authority over his family Fathers authority over his family Some wealthy women played an important role in Italian city-states Some wealthy women played an important role in Italian city-states --Isabella dEste of Mantua Concentration of wealth among great families Concentration of wealth among great families -- populo grosso

8 IV. Renaissance Society (cont) Extreme social stratification divided into factions around the wealthiest families Extreme social stratification divided into factions around the wealthiest families Poor increasingly attempting to improve their social status Poor increasingly attempting to improve their social status --The Ciompi Revolt (1378) -- populo minuto The Cult of the Individual The Cult of the Individual

9 IV. Renaissance Society (cont) Number of portraits painted during this era illustrates focus on the individual Number of portraits painted during this era illustrates focus on the individual A true nobleman A true nobleman Growing humanism and secularism in a Christian context Growing humanism and secularism in a Christian context Focus on mans free will Focus on mans free will Rewards for living excellently came in this life Rewards for living excellently came in this life

10 V. Renaissance Politics Same pattern and problems as those of the Greek city-states Same pattern and problems as those of the Greek city-states Inter-city warfare led to new advances in diplomacy Inter-city warfare led to new advances in diplomacy -- balance of power Northern Italian communes Northern Italian communes The Peace of Lodi (1454) The Peace of Lodi (1454)

11 V. Renaissance Politics (cont) Rome, Venice, Milan, Florence, and the Kingdom of Naples Rome, Venice, Milan, Florence, and the Kingdom of Naples Renaissance Venice Renaissance Venice Renaissance Florence Renaissance Florence --Lorenzo the Magnificent (1449-1492) 1300s republicanism became 1400s despotismwith the exception of Venice 1300s republicanism became 1400s despotismwith the exception of Venice

12 V. Renaissance Politics (cont) Niccolo Machiavelli (1469- 1527) Niccolo Machiavelli (1469- 1527) -- The Prince The goal of the prince must be power The goal of the prince must be power Cynical view of human nature Cynical view of human nature Fear is a better motivator than affection Fear is a better motivator than affection Politics as the art of deception Politics as the art of deception

13 V. Renaissance Politics (cont) Ancient and contemporary examples of effective political leaders Ancient and contemporary examples of effective political leaders --Cesare Borgia A new realism in political thought A new realism in political thought 1400s Civic humanism 1400s Civic humanism Leonardo Brunis The New Cicero Leonardo Brunis The New Cicero Henry VIII as a Renaissance prince Henry VIII as a Renaissance prince

14 VI. Renaissance Art and Architecture The proliferation of portraiture and its significance The proliferation of portraiture and its significance The depiction of nudes The depiction of nudes Nudity in medieval art Nudity in medieval art Imitation of nature was a primary goal Imitation of nature was a primary goal Pagan scenes and myths were popular subjects with no apologies to the Church Pagan scenes and myths were popular subjects with no apologies to the Church

15 VI. Renaissance Art and Architecture (cont) Boticellis Birth of Venus Boticellis Birth of Venus Giottos admiration for Saint Francis Giottos admiration for Saint Francis Status of artist is elevated to cultural hero Status of artist is elevated to cultural hero Renaissance art stressed proportion, balance and harmonyand was not otherworldly Renaissance art stressed proportion, balance and harmonyand was not otherworldly Artistic problems of perspective and composition addressed Artistic problems of perspective and composition addressed

16 VI. Renaissance Art and Architecture (cont) These problems were solved by emphasizing the mathematical side of painting These problems were solved by emphasizing the mathematical side of painting --Brunelleschis linear perspective Innovations in Renaissance painting Innovations in Renaissance painting -- chiaroscuro -- sfumato

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19 VI. Renaissance Art and Architecture (cont) Differences between Italian and Northern European painting Differences between Italian and Northern European painting --Italian frescoes vs. Northern European altar pieces Van Eycks oil paintings Van Eycks oil paintings Rome became the center of the High Renaissance (1480-1520) Rome became the center of the High Renaissance (1480-1520)

20 VI. Renaissance Art and Architecture (cont) Raphael (1483-1520) Raphael (1483-1520) Man of great sensitivity and kindness Man of great sensitivity and kindness Died at the age of 37 Died at the age of 37 The School of Athens The School of Athens Famous for frescoes in the Vatican Palace Famous for frescoes in the Vatican Palace

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26 VI. Renaissance Art and Architecture (cont) Leonardo Da Vinci (1452-1519) Leonardo Da Vinci (1452-1519) True Renaissance Man True Renaissance Man Scientist, inventor, engineer and naturalist Scientist, inventor, engineer and naturalist Dissected Corpses Dissected Corpses Short attention span Short attention span

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33 VI. Renaissance Art and Architecture (cont) Michelangelo Michelangelo Neo-Platonist Neo-Platonist Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel Conflict with Pope Julius II Conflict with Pope Julius II Incredible energy and endurance Incredible energy and endurance Mannerism Mannerism

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42 VI. Renaissance Art and Architecture (cont) Mannerisms greatest representative: El Greco (1541-1614) Mannerisms greatest representative: El Greco (1541-1614) Romanesque architecture was revived in Renaissance building projects Romanesque architecture was revived in Renaissance building projects Brunelleschis Church of San Lorenzo Brunelleschis Church of San Lorenzo

43 VII. Renaissance Education and Philosophy Humanistic age Humanistic age Various types of humanism Various types of humanism Great fervor displayed in finding and collecting old documents Great fervor displayed in finding and collecting old documents Leads to critical examination of documents Leads to critical examination of documents --Lorenzo Valla Education produces moral uplift Education produces moral uplift

44 VII. Renaissance Education and Philosophy (cont) A true liberal education A true liberal education Humanist education for women Humanist education for women Love for the study of history most of all Love for the study of history most of all A Greek language fad after 1454 A Greek language fad after 1454 Petrarch (1304-1374): the Father of Italian Renaissance humanism Petrarch (1304-1374): the Father of Italian Renaissance humanism Focus on the individual and his dignity Focus on the individual and his dignity

45 VII. Renaissance Education and Philosophy (cont) First influenced secondary education First influenced secondary education Extreme vanity of Renaissance scholars Extreme vanity of Renaissance scholars The importance of law and rhetoric in Renaissance education The importance of law and rhetoric in Renaissance education Classical political ideals were cultivated Classical political ideals were cultivated Knowledge needed to be useful Knowledge needed to be useful

46 VII. Renaissance Philosophy (cont) Renaissance philosophy flourishes during Greek revival after 1450 Renaissance philosophy flourishes during Greek revival after 1450 Marsilio Ficino (1433- 1499) Marsilio Ficino (1433- 1499) The teachings of Hermeticism The teachings of Hermeticism Giovanni Pico Mirandola (1463-1494) Giovanni Pico Mirandola (1463-1494) --Oration on the Dignity of Man

47 VIII. The Renaissance Papacy Loss of influence over European nation-states Loss of influence over European nation-states Decline in moral prestige and leadership Decline in moral prestige and leadership Pope Julius II (1503- 1513) Pope Julius II (1503- 1513) Popes as patrons of Renaissance art Popes as patrons of Renaissance art --Leo X (1513-1521) Nepotism used to promote family interest Nepotism used to promote family interest

48 IX. Spread of Humanism to the Rest of Europe The significance of Gutenbergs printing press The significance of Gutenbergs printing press Explosion of printed materials Explosion of printed materials --By 1500, 40,000 titles printed and between 8-10 million copies The impact of movable- type printing presses: research and literacy The impact of movable- type printing presses: research and literacy

49 IX. Spread of Humanism to the Rest of Europe (cont) Popular publications in the early days of the printing press Popular publications in the early days of the printing press Thomas More Thomas More --Utopia --Executed by Henry VIII in 1535 ErasmusDutch Christian Humanist ErasmusDutch Christian Humanist

50 IX. Spread of Humanism to the Rest of Europe (cont) William Shakespeare (1564-1616) William Shakespeare (1564-1616) --Globe Theater Shakespeare returns to classical subjects and genres Shakespeare returns to classical subjects and genres His history plays were the most popular at the time His history plays were the most popular at the time Macbeth: ambition Macbeth: ambition Hamlet: individualism Hamlet: individualism Keen sensitivity to sounds and meanings of words Keen sensitivity to sounds and meanings of words


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