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Foreign & Defense Policy Overview of Chapter 20. Pop Quiz 20 1. Name 2 members of the National Security Council besides the President and vice President.

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Presentation on theme: "Foreign & Defense Policy Overview of Chapter 20. Pop Quiz 20 1. Name 2 members of the National Security Council besides the President and vice President."— Presentation transcript:

1 Foreign & Defense Policy Overview of Chapter 20

2 Pop Quiz Name 2 members of the National Security Council besides the President and vice President. 2. Name one of the worldviews described in the text. 3. What percent of our military today is volunteer? 4. What term describes the practice of asking for every possible bell and whistle in new equipment? 5. What is the job of the BRAC Commission? 6. In what building complex is DOD headquartered?

3 Types of Foreign & Defense Policy Majoritarian politics: Widely distributed benefits and widely distributed costs “We’re all in this together” (ex: declaring war and military alliances)- President controls Majoritarian politics: Widely distributed benefits and widely distributed costs “We’re all in this together” (ex: declaring war and military alliances)- President controls Interest Group politics: Groups compete with each other for costs and benefits (ex: who gets contract)-Congress mainly has control Interest Group politics: Groups compete with each other for costs and benefits (ex: who gets contract)-Congress mainly has control Client politics: Washington gives aid to groups that that do business abroad (ex: policy toward Israel)-Congress mainly has control Client politics: Washington gives aid to groups that that do business abroad (ex: policy toward Israel)-Congress mainly has control Entrepreneurial politics: Congress carries out investigations when scandals hit (SS prostitute scandal) Entrepreneurial politics: Congress carries out investigations when scandals hit (SS prostitute scandal)

4 Constitutional & Legal Context Power over foreign affairs shared by president and Congress; creates struggle Power over foreign affairs shared by president and Congress; creates struggle President Commander in Chief, Negotiates treaties President Commander in Chief, Negotiates treaties Congress declares war, controls purse strings & Senate by 2/3 approves treaties Congress declares war, controls purse strings & Senate by 2/3 approves treaties Americans consider president in charge of foreign affairs Americans consider president in charge of foreign affairs o Have sent out troops over 125 times o Have formally declared war 6 times

5 Chain of Command Important agencies/departments: Important agencies/departments: State Dept., Defense Dept., NSC, & CIA State Dept., Defense Dept., NSC, & CIA Presidents today rely on both Secs. also on NSA Presidents today rely on both Secs. also on NSA President receives more approval from Congress on foreign matters than domestic President receives more approval from Congress on foreign matters than domestic President is much stronger than Founders imagined (ex.: T.J. and the pirates; Abe blockades Southern ports; Reagan in Grenada) President is much stronger than Founders imagined (ex.: T.J. and the pirates; Abe blockades Southern ports; Reagan in Grenada) President has much less power over troops and foreign affairs than leaders in other countries, though. President has much less power over troops and foreign affairs than leaders in other countries, though.

6 Foreign Policy: The Machine Coordination of foreign & defense policy managed by NSC – Chaired by the Pres. With the VP, Sec. of State & Defense, CIA Director, Chairman of JCS, and Attorney General; headed by the NS Advisor Coordination of foreign & defense policy managed by NSC – Chaired by the Pres. With the VP, Sec. of State & Defense, CIA Director, Chairman of JCS, and Attorney General; headed by the NS Advisor o NSC brings options before president and implements his decisions o Pres.’s decisions are issued through a National Security Decision Directive (NSDD) Consequences of NSC foreign policy : Consequences of NSC foreign policy : Rivalries of agencies worsen rivalry with leg. branch Rivalries of agencies worsen rivalry with leg. branch Organizations’ interests affect the positions they take Organizations’ interests affect the positions they take

7 Interpreting Power of Presidents SCOTUS rarely gets involved in disputes over foreign policy SCOTUS rarely gets involved in disputes over foreign policy Biggest check on Pres. is Congressional Powers of Purse but these have never really been used-only threatened Biggest check on Pres. is Congressional Powers of Purse but these have never really been used-only threatened Important restrictions on Presidents since Vietnam: Important restrictions on Presidents since Vietnam: o Limits on aid to other countries o Boland Amendment- Prevented aid to Nicaraguan Contras o War Powers Act 1973 o Notify Cong. within 48 hours o Bring troops home in 60 days if no cooperation from Congress o Must bring troops home if Congress passes a concurrent resolution cutting off funding o Oversight by House/Senate Intelligence Committees o Get reports from CIA on covert and other missions

8 Public Opinion WWII led to internationalism-U.S. became dominant world power WWII led to internationalism-U.S. became dominant world power Public often changes their minds out of deference to Pres.’s authority and desire to support country in foreign conflict AKA “rallying around the flag” Public often changes their minds out of deference to Pres.’s authority and desire to support country in foreign conflict AKA “rallying around the flag” President must have public trust President must have public trust Elite opinion usually differs from public opinion Elite opinion usually differs from public opinion Changes more rapidly Changes more rapidly Leaders usually more liberal Leaders usually more liberal Support economic aid, reducing tariffs, defending allies Support economic aid, reducing tariffs, defending allies Public usually worried more about protecting jobs at home than overseas matters Public usually worried more about protecting jobs at home than overseas matters

9 Worldviews (Paradigms) Perception of problems facing US in the world & how to respond o o Isolationism: Opposed to getting involved in others’ wars; stemmed from bitterness about WWI o o Containment (anti-appeasement): Push back any nation it sees as threat to our/allies power & safety o o Disengagement: Don’t get involved in a conflict without exit strategy; Conflicts must be winnable o o Human rights: We’re obligated to help others who have been wronged or harmed (often occurs during genocide or oppression) o o Pre-emption: Take the threat out before they can strike US

10 What factors Influence the growth or decline of the defense budget? Crisis in war can influence the budget Crisis in war can influence the budget Political Party matters in voting for conflict approval. Political Party matters in voting for conflict approval. War disapproval by public (such as the second term of George W. Bush) matters as to how elections are decided. War disapproval by public (such as the second term of George W. Bush) matters as to how elections are decided.

11 The Military Budget Has remained constant as part of GDP Has remained constant as part of GDP Many demand that “peace dividend” be shifted to domestic programs Many demand that “peace dividend” be shifted to domestic programs Others argue defenses must stay strong to prevent nuclear proliferation & terrorism Others argue defenses must stay strong to prevent nuclear proliferation & terrorism Our military is an all-volunteer force! No draft since 1975! Young men still must register with Selective Service Our military is an all-volunteer force! No draft since 1975! Young men still must register with Selective Service Debates have arisen over women & gays in military-Obama’s policy’s have expanded both roles. Debates have arisen over women & gays in military-Obama’s policy’s have expanded both roles.

12 The Military Budget What else do we get for our money? Big ticket items Big ticket items Lead to cost overruns, underestimation to gain bid, gold plating, sole-sourcing, & delays Lead to cost overruns, underestimation to gain bid, gold plating, sole-sourcing, & delays Small ticket items Small ticket items Overruns caused by special needs of common items like the coffee maker Overruns caused by special needs of common items like the coffee maker Readiness Readiness Easy to cut, but often dangerous Easy to cut, but often dangerous Bases Bases Which bases should be closed? BRAC decides Which bases should be closed? BRAC decides

13 Military-industrial complex Military-industrial complex The Military-Industrial complex is a concept used to refer to the relationship between legislators, the armed forces, and the industrial sectors that support them. These relationships include political contributions, political approval for defense spending, lobbying to support bureaucracies, and legislation and oversight of the industry. It is a type of iron triangle. This includes corporations and contracted manufacturers like Northrop Grumman, Academi and Lockheed Martin This includes corporations and contracted manufacturers like Northrop Grumman, Academi and Lockheed Martin

14 Chain of Command in DOD Command structure of Dept. of Defense redefined by the Goldwater-Nichols Act of 1986 Command structure of Dept. of Defense redefined by the Goldwater-Nichols Act of 1986 Chain of command Chain of command President President Secretary of Defense (Chuck Hagel) Secretary of Defense (Chuck Hagel) Sec. commanders of Army, Navy & Air Force Sec. commanders of Army, Navy & Air Force Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff & Service Chiefs of Staff are responsible for readiness of U.S. military. They serve as President's military advisers, but are not in the chain of command. Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff & Service Chiefs of Staff are responsible for readiness of U.S. military. They serve as President's military advisers, but are not in the chain of command. The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is by law the highest ranking military officer in US. (Gen. Martin Dempsey) The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is by law the highest ranking military officer in US. (Gen. Martin Dempsey)

15 Chain of Command in DOD

16 Terrorism as a reality Discuss Boston Marathon attack. Discuss Boston Marathon attack. What policies can we pursue to prevent future attacks? What policies can we pursue to prevent future attacks? Which is a bigger threat: Domestic or foreign terrorism? Which is a bigger threat: Domestic or foreign terrorism? Which is harder to prevent? Which is harder to prevent? What do we do to feel safer? What do we do to feel safer?


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