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Foreign & Military Policy By: Anna Forster, Allison Henry, Cindy Li, Layla Tavangar, Zili Xu.

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Presentation on theme: "Foreign & Military Policy By: Anna Forster, Allison Henry, Cindy Li, Layla Tavangar, Zili Xu."— Presentation transcript:

1 Foreign & Military Policy By: Anna Forster, Allison Henry, Cindy Li, Layla Tavangar, Zili Xu

2 Kinds of Foreign Policies Majoritarian – confer benefits & impose costs (go to war, alliances, etc.) ◦President = dominant figure, reflects public opinion Foreign policy reflects interest groups ◦Congress plays larger role Client politics – aid to US corporations abroad

3 Constitution/Legal Context President = commander in chief, appoints ambassadors, negotiates treaties Congress must authorize money, confirm appointments, ratifies treaties, declares war **President is not as powerful as people think (only 5/13 wars approved by Cong)

4 War Powers Act Only 60 day commitment of troops without declaration of war All commitments reported within 48 hours Legislative veto to send troops home  struck down in Chadha case

5 Decision Making/Public Opinion Power widespread, rivalries between branches Secretary of State job too big for one person  National Security Staff created Public opinion = major factor ◦Americans support escalation rather than withdrawing ◦Support president during times of crisis ◦Opinion of masses worse than opinion of elites b/c not well informed

6 Four World Views of Foreign Policy 1). Isolationism - opposition to getting involved in European wars (after WWI) 2). Containment - iron curtain, defensive alliances  welcome allies or prevent military conquest (after WWII) 3). Disengagement – “new isolationism” (after Vietnam) 4). Human Rights – genocides in Rwanda, China, etc.

7 Military Force Forms of foreign policy: ◦discussions, treaties, organizations ◦troops, ships, aircraft, foreign aid ◦weapons of mass destruction Majoritarian view - military exists to defend the country or help other nations defend (all benefit) vs. military is too powerful view (benefits big corps)

8 Defense Budget US does not maintain large military during peacetime Changes in spending reflect public opinion Spending: ◦People (soldiers, etc.) = most expensive, # volunteers increased with pay raises ◦Hardware (aircrafts, etc.) ◦“Readiness” (training, supplies, food) Cost overruns because: ◦Hard to estimate ◦Underestimate when want Congress to approve ◦Small ticket items may seem inexpensive but must be fit for military

9 Structure of Decision Making 4 branches of services cannot be merged President = commander in chief  Dept of Defense  Specialized Commands Department of Defense ◦Secretary of Defense ◦Secretaries of Army, Navy, Air force, Marines ◦Joint Chiefs of Staff – heads of each service, chairman, vice chairman, appointed officials

10 Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell Interest Group Politics – benefits on some small, identifiable group and impose costs on another group ◦For Repeal:  Human Rights Campaign – lesbian/gay equality ◦Against Repeal:  Center for Military Readiness – homosexuality is incompatible with military service

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15 DADT signing 2ID20&feature=channel 2ID20&feature=channel


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