Presentation on theme: "Citizenship Issues C.I.4 U.S. Domestic and Foreign Policy Students are able to: 4.2 Describe U.S. foreign policy. Students may indicate this by: – Defining."— Presentation transcript:
Citizenship Issues C.I.4 U.S. Domestic and Foreign Policy Students are able to: 4.2 Describe U.S. foreign policy. Students may indicate this by: – Defining foreign policy and role of the U.S. in world affairs. –Explaining the U.S. military as it relates to foreign policy. –Identifying examples of interdependence among the world’s nations. –Describing the role of the president, Congress, and the State Department in dealing with foreign nations. –Identifying the relationship between U.S. foreign policy and the United States. Made By: Benjamin Buhr
III. Foreign Policy A. Definition: 1. The actions, decisions, and principles that guide the U.S. government’s relationships with other nations. In other words - F.P. focused on interacting with other countries of the world to build international security and promote U.S. interests.
2. Foreign Policy Priorities: According to the State Department, American foreign policy goals include the following: a. Preserving the national security of the United States and promoting a safe, secure global environment, an essential element of the success of the other goals. b. Promoting world peace, maintaining a balance of powers, and working with allies to solve international problems.
Continued from 2. c. Promoting democratic values and human rights, particularly encouraging countries with political choice and the rule of law. d. Furthering foreign trade and global economic and cooperative involvement in international organizations, such as the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.
Note: Foreign policy is also a defense policy. Reasoning- Today we live in a time period where there is an increasing number of nations with nuclear weapons, biological and chemical warfare, and the threat of terrorism. It is up to the nation’s foreign and defense policy makers to decide how to react to and even avoid these situations.
B. Foreign and defense policy makers. 1. Foreign policy makers- job is to use diplomacy to solve problems. a. Diplomats - specialists in foreign policy 1. Executive Branch a. The State Department- Sec. Hillary Clinton 1. Created in 1789. 2. Foreign service- ambassadors. 3. Primary duty - the security of the nation.
b. The National Security Council (NSC). 1. Created in 1947. 2. Help coordinate U.S. military and foreign policy. c. The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) 1. Created in 1947. 2. Responsible for gathering information regarding national defense.
2. Defense policy makers- job is to defend the country against outside threats, including military strikes or war. a. The Department of Defense (DOD) - Sec. Robert Gates. 1. Advises on foreign policy but specializes in defense policy. a. Headquarters- Pentagon b. 3 military departments- Army, Navy, and Air force. Note: The two levels overlap and require cooperation and interaction among foreign policy specialists and defense policy specialists. c. Created in 1789 as Department of War/Department of Defense in 1947.
C. Diplomatic Policies 1. Major responsibility - for foreign and defense policy makers. What policy will they following in solving international problems. a. Foreign Aid - a government’s financial or military assistance to other countries. b. Economic Sanctions -a penalty against a nation that has violated international law. c. Alliances - A collective security pact - nations agree to view an attack on one country as an attack on all. Use as a means of deterrence - the U.S. defense policy that uses the threat of military attack to discourage enemy attack or hostile actions. 1. Multilateral treaties - NATO.,OAS., Anzus Pact. 2. Bilateral treaties - two nations.
D. Defense Policies 1. If diplomacy breaks down, the United States must be able to defend itself. a. Covert operations - covert, or secret, operations are generally meant to avoid full-scale military involvement. b. Political coercion - last resort before military intervention. Techniques include breaking diplomatic ties, boycotts, and restricting tourist and business travel. c. Military intervention - last resort, most are brief interventions.
E. Foreign Policy - Shared? 1. Constitution provides for a partnership between Congress and the president. Note: this partnership is not clearly defined. As one constitutional expert observed, the Constitution created “an invitation to struggle for the privilege of directing American foreign policy” for the president and Congress. However, events have enabled the president to be the chief foreign policy maker. According to one political scientist, “Any discussion of the making of United States foreign policy must begin with the president. He is the ultimate decider.”
2. Presidents foreign policy powers a. Article II, Section 1 - U.S. Constitution. 1. Commander in chief of the armed forces. 2. Treaties - need Senate approval. 3. Executive agreements - do not need Senate approval. 4. Diplomatic b. Role - Head of State c. Head of information - C.I.A., N.S.C. etc... d. Budget - making e. Public opinion - mass media
3. Congressional foreign policy powers 1. Declare war. 2. Appropriate funds to build new weapons systems and to equip American armed forces. 3. Senate has the power to approve or reject treaties and appointments of ambassadors. 4. Congressional committees that are directly involved with foreign affairs. a. HR & S - Armed Services b. HR - International Relations c. S - Foreign Relations d. Other committees that deal with - oil, agriculture, imports etc... a. Article I