The North New England industrialized Most farms were small, family run. In the Northwest they grew grains and livestock which needed no slaves.
Sectionalism: Northern Leaders Daniel Webster, Massachusetts J.Q. Adams, Massachusetts Martin Van Buren, New York
The South The Cotton gin makes cotton profitable. Plantation owners bought more land and slaves to increase profits. 1820: LA, MS, AL are “the Cotton Kingdom” Slavery expanded from 700,000 to 1,200,000.
Sectionalism: Southern Leaders John C. Calhoun, South Carolina William Crawford, Georgia
Sectionalism: Western Leaders Andrew Jackson, Tennessee William Henry Harrison, Indiana Henry Clay, Kentucky Thomas Hart Benton, Missouri
The American System, Nationalistic Economic Program Henry Clay Speaker of the House Tariff of 1816 Second bank of the US 1816-1836 Internal improvements at the federal expense
The American System, Nationalistic Economic Program Henry Clay (1777 - 1852) US Senator from Kentucky Speaker of the US House of Representatives (Kentucky) Secretary of State under John Quincy Adams Perennial Presidential Loser Lost to President John Quincy Adams in 1824, Lost to President Andrew Jackson in 1832 Lost to President James K. Polk in 1844
Clay’s American System Proposed to help America stronger and to unite the regions. 3 steps: Develop Transportation Create a protective tariff Resurrect the National Bank Transportation: Erie Canal The National Road Tariff of 1816 Cheap British goods Tariff raises their prices. Not as popular in the South National Bank Supported by all sides to improve the economy.
What was it? A challenge of the U.S. Bank by the State of Maryland Who was it between? The State of Maryland and the U.S. Government What did it concern? The right of the U.S. Bank to “exist” What was the outcome? The U.S. Government is Supreme
- Constitutionality of the Bank of the United States (BUS) was in question Bank not SPECIFICALLY mentioned in the Constitution “The power to tax is the power to destroy”
What was it? An attempt by the State of New Hampshire to make Dartmouth College “public”. Who was it between? The State of New Hampshire ( rep. by the Sec’y of the NEW Bd. Of Trustees) and the Board of Trustees of the Dartmouth College What did it concern? Contract Law What was the outcome? Contracts cannot be overturned by outside parties – Contract Clause
What was it? : One of the first cases where the Supreme court overturned a state law. Who was it between? : Two private citizens What did it concern? : Georgia sold land (Peck). Later when corruption was discovered, they overturned the sale. Fletcher bought land from Peck and sued. What was the outcome? : The Supreme court said that the state had no right to overturn the sale.
New Hampshire wanted to alter Dartmouth Charter from private to public college Ruled that states could not alter contracts, regardless of age or condition of when contract was made Created the need to place clauses in contracts for revision or revocation
Nationalism Shapes Foreign Policy John Q. Adams ( Secretary of State) had very nationalistic policies. Adams-Onis Treaty Convention of 1818 Rush-Bagot Treaty Monroe Doctrine
What was it?: Disarmament Pact Who was it between?: Great Britain and the U.S. What did it concern?: The Great Lakes Region What was the outcome?: Created the Longest unfortified/peaceful border in the world Rush-Bagot Treaty 1817
What was it? Further improved relations between the U.S. and Great Britain Who was it between? U.S. & Great Britain What did it concern? 1. Fishing Rights 2. Joint occupation of the Oregon Country 3. Set boundary at the 49 th Parallel What was the outcome? Great Peace between the U.S. and Great Britain
The Monroe Doctrine What was it? A unilateral decree that the U.S. had the right to REFUSE European expansion into the Western Hemisphere Who was it between? The U.S. & Europe What did it concern? Further European Imperialism What was the outcome? European nations NEVER violated it
Missouri Compromise 1820 What was it? A dilemma over admission of Missouri ( a slave state) when there was no Free-State available. Who was it between? Northern and Southern factions in Congress What did it concern? Maintaining the balance between Slave and Free States What was the outcome? The “balance” is maintained
The Missouri Compromise Before 1818 there were 10 slave and 10 free states. Illinois would have made it 11 Free and 10 slave. Why even care? Alabama was admitted to keep the balance. Missouri was ready for admission… led to fighting. Compromise gave Maine (Free) and Missouri (Slave) statehood. Drew a line (36’ 30). Lands north (Free) Lands south (Slave). This solved the issue for the next 20 years. Picture!
"This momentous question, like a fire-bell in the night, awakened and filled me with terror. I considered it at once as the death knell of the Union... my only consolation is to be, that I live not to weep over it."
Era of Good Feelings Eli Whitney, Mass Production, Cotton Gin The American Industrial Revolution Economic system in the North Economic system in the South The American System Gibbons v. Ogden McCulloch v. Maryland Fletcher v. Peck Dartmouth v. Woodward Adams-Onis Treaty Convention of 1818 Rush-Bagot Treaty Monroe Doctrine Missouri Compromise