Chapter 7: Balancing Nationalism and Sectionalism 1815-1840
The Industrial Revolution Great Britain starts the industrial revolution. The United States- The Embargo Act of 1807 and War of 1812 turn Americas attention to industry and the development of the country. New England takes center stage as the industrial capital of America. Q: What are some of the things you use today or are in this classroom that are made from interchangeable parts?
Sectionalism Industry in the north ▫Farmers grew only what they needed for themselves ▫Became a need for cheap labor in the industrial factories spreading across the north Agriculture in the south ▫Cotton gin is created by Eli Whitney ▫Plantations grow and so does the need for labor. ▫Slavery grows rapidly across the south.
The American System Henry Clay proposed a plan to unify the country. His plan included three major points: 1.Development of a transportation system/network: national road, Erie canal, railroads 2.Establishing a protective tariff against imported goods but not exported goods thereby making things from other countries more expensive 3.Resurrecting the national bank
Transportation The National Road stretched from Maryland to Illinois The Erie Canal linked the Hudson River to Lake Erie, over 363 miles long
Tariff of 1816- Made European goods 20-25% more expensive, thereby making American goods cheaper. ▫Was welcomed by the north but not by the south The Second Bank of the United States made a national currency once more and made it easier for trade to take place.
Supreme Court Decisions Fletcher V. Peck (1810) McCulloch V. Maryland(1819): Taxes against the Bank of the Untied States were unconstitutional because the congress created the Bank of the United States. Dartmouth College V. Woodward (1819) Gibbons V. Ogden (1824):Interstate commerce could be regulated only by the federal government
Foreign Policy Secretary of state John Quincy Adams under President James Monroe believed in a policy of nationalism Rush-Bagot Treaty (1817) : American border established at the 49th parallel, Oregon territory becomes a jointly occupied zone, and the great lakes and Canadian border become demilitarized. Adams-Onis Treaty (1819): Florida is succeeded to America, Spain also gave up its claims to the Oregon territory.
The Monroe Doctrine Portugal, Spain, And Russia began encroaching on America’s interests westward. Stay out of the affairs of the U.S. President Monroe sends them a message: ▫Do not establish any new colonies, or overthrow any new republics in the western hemisphere ▫America would not involve itself or interfere with any European affairs or any preexisting colonies.
Within your group split into 2 teams of equal size. Teams Will: A.Define word B.Act out word While a team is acting out a word the second team is attempting to guess which word is being acted out. Once you finish acting out all your words switch and have the other team act out there words.
The Missouri Compromise 1819: Missouri applies for statehood Free states 11, Slave states 10 Alabama then granted statehood as a slave state Free states 11, Slave states 11 Henry Clay offers a compromise that Maine be entered into the union as a free state and Missouri a slave state and that the rest of the Louisiana territory be divided at 36 30 north latitude and everything north of that line be free
Question In 1833 Great Britain abolished slavery. Why do you think it took America another 30 years to do so and why so violently?
Presidency of Andrew Jackson Defeated Adams in a landslide victory Indian Removal Act of 1830- Federal Government could provide funds for treaties that would force Native Americans to move west. He allows the Second Bank of them United States to expire as he believes it is unfair to the common citizen.
The Whig Party In opposition of Andrew Jackson a political party forms called the Whig Party. The Whigs wanted a federal currency and believed in the ideals of the American system with a protective tariff.
1835- John Marshall the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court dies. He served over 30 years and was arguably just as important in the shaping of the country as some of the presidents because of his decisions which outlined what the federal and state governments could and could not do.
1838- Trail of Tears, over 16,000 Cherokee are forced to walk over 800 miles during the dead of winter and over 4000 die on the way as there money and cattle are stolen by federal employees.
Election of 1836- Martin Van Buren vs. Whig party Panic of 1837- May 1837 Banks stopped accepting paper currency. Life savings were lost and a third of the population was out of work. Van Buren attempted to help by reducing federal spending which caused prices to fall more. 1840- A treasury with gold and silver is established by congress but does not help.
The Whig Party Wins William Henry Harrison was portrayed as a old war hero who was down to earth but was actually a wealthy man with a 16 room mansion. William Henry Harrison wins the election Died a month into office Vice President John Tyler took office and did not agree with Whig party ideals