Presentation on theme: "Perspectives in Psychology. Psychology Psychology: The scientific study of behavior and mental processes. – Behavior: are actions that can be directly."— Presentation transcript:
Perspectives in Psychology
Psychology Psychology: The scientific study of behavior and mental processes. – Behavior: are actions that can be directly observed. – Mental Processes: are experiences that cannot be observed directly, such as thoughts and feelings.
Nature vs. Nurture Nature-nurture issue: the controversy over the relative contributions of biology and experience. – Examples: How are humans alike (because of our common biology and evolutionary history) and different (because of our differing environments)? Are gender differences biologically predisposed or socially constructed?
In the beginning… Historically significant psychological perspectives include behaviorism and humanistic psychology. – Behaviorism: psychology should be an objective science and studies behavior without reference to mental processes. – Humanistic: emphasized the growth potential of healthy people by focusing on current environmental influences and our needs for love and acceptance.
Biopsychology Biopsychology incorporates various levels of analysis and offers a more complete picture of behavior or mental process by studying biological, psychological and socio-cultural influences.
Current Psychological Perspectives PerspectiveFocusBasic Premise Neuroscience Physiological bases of behavior in humans and animals How the body and brain enable emotions, memories and sensory experience. EvolutionaryThe natural selection of traits promotes perpetuation of one’s genes. Behavior patterns have evolved to solve adaptive problems; natural selection favors behaviors that enhance reproductive success. BehaviorEffects of environment on the overt behavior of human and animals. Belief that only observable events (stimulus response relationships) can be studied scientifically. PsychodynamicUnconscious mind drives behavior.Belief that the unconscious mind--- a part of our mind that we do not have conscious control over or access to---controls much of our thought and action. Unconscious motives and experiences in early childhood govern personality and mental disorders.
Current Psychological Perspectives PerspectiveFocusBasic Premise CognitiveThoughts; Mental processHow we use information in remembering, reasoning, and solving problems. human behavior cannot be fully understood without examining how people acquire, store, and process information. Socio-culturalEffects of social and cultural issues on behavior Looks at how our thoughts and behaviors vary from people living in other cultures. Emphasizes the influence culture has on the way we think and act.
Psychologists Descartes Charles Darwin Sigmund Freud William James John B. Watson B.F. Skinner Carl Rogers
Types of Psychology Practices Psychologists undertake research. Psychologists undertake research. Psychologists work with individuals to improve their mental and physical health. Psychologists work with individuals to improve their mental and physical health. Psychologists contribute to the community to improve the world of work and to help people learn. Psychologists contribute to the community to improve the world of work and to help people learn.
Specialist areas of psychology This involves helping people who have mental health concerns or problems. The aim is to help people cope more successfully with their lives.
Specialist areas of psychology This involves improving people’s performance in the work place, by reducing stress factors, for example, or by making sure that the best candidate is chosen for a specific job.
Specialist areas of psychology This involves working with criminals in an effort to understand and/or change their behaviour. It usually involves working closely with the police and prison staff. It can cover the rehabilitation of criminals as well as finding the perpetrators of an individual crime.
Specialist areas of psychology This involves undertaking research both academically and in other areas such as in industry, for example.
Specialist areas of psychology This involves working with school aged children and young adults. Educational support is offered to pupils, parents and teachers.
Specialist areas of psychology This involves improving mental health, particularly when people are adjusting to or recovering from physical illness that has drastically changed their lifestyle.
Specialist areas of psychology This involves dealing with people who have personal problems or problems in relationships. The aim is to help people deal with the stresses of their everyday life.
Specialist areas of psychology This involves enhancing and improving personal sports performance. The psychologist works with sportsmen and women, teams, coaches and sports clubs. He /she devises better training programmes to improve competitive performance.
Specialist areas of psychology This involves working with businesses and within industry to promote an understanding of how and why consumers behave and choose products. Marketing and advertising are areas that use this type of psychology.