Presentation on theme: "The History of Psychology Phrenology: Different areas of the brain account for specific character and personality traits. Traits were read from bumps on."— Presentation transcript:
The History of Psychology Phrenology: Different areas of the brain account for specific character and personality traits. Traits were read from bumps on the skull. An example of pseudoscience
The History of Psychology 1897 the first psychology lab was founded by Wilhelm Wundt Wundt used a method called trained introspection, or structuralism Structuralism emphasized the analysis and description of sensations, mental images, and emotional reactions.
The History of Psychology William James introduced functionalism which emphasized the function of behavior Asked how various actions help a person adapt to the environment
The History of Psychology Gestalt Psychology had its roots in Germany. Gestalt means “good form” or “good figure.” People naturally seek out patterns or “wholes” in the sensory information available to them.
The History of Psychology Sigmund Freud- patients’ stress due to conflicts, memories and emotional traumas that originated in early childhood and were too threatening to be remembered consciously Method of treatment known as psychoanalysis
The History of Psychology John B. Watson- introduced behaviorism which focused on observable behavior that could be measured Believed that all behavior is learned
Psychology’s Present Psychodynamic perspective- unconscious dynamics within an individual Behavioral perspective- how environment/experience affects actions Humanist psychology- emphasizes free will, personal growth, achievement of potential
Psychology’s Present Biopsychological perspective- how bodily events affect behavior, feelings, thoughts Cognitive perspective-how people reason, remember understand language, solve problems, etc.- what goes on in people’s heads Sociocultural perspective-social and cultural forces outside the person Evolutionary psychology-how genetically influenced behavior that was adaptive during evolutionary past is currently reflected
Where Are Psychologists Today Conducting research in university or business settings Teaching in universities Providing mental health services
Psychological Research Ph.D or Ed.D. Basic research-interested in knowledge for its own sake Applied research-concerned with practical uses of knowledge
Psychological Practice Psychotherapist- does psychotherapy; may or may not have a degree Clinical Psychologist- diagnoses and treats mental and emotional problems; has Ph.D., Psy.D or Ed.D. Psychoanalyst-practices psychoanalysis Psychiatrist- M.D. can prescribe medication Licensed Clinical Social Worker- treats common individual and family problems; may deal with more serious problems like addiction or abuse