2 1.1 Why Study Psychology?What do you hope to learn from the study of psychology?Others?Self?Specific Topics?Psychology provides a different way to view and interpret the world and the people who inhabit it.
3 What is psychology?Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
4 What is psychology?Behavior is any action that people can observe or measure.WalkingTalkingSleepingEatingBlood PressureBrain Activity
5 What is psychology? Mental processes are cognitive activities. Dreams PerceptionsThoughtsMemories
6 What is psychology?Psychologists also study people’s emotions as they can affect both behavior and cognition.
7 What are the goals of psychology? Psychologists observe and describe behavior and mental processes.A better understanding of behavior/mental processes enables psychologists to explain, predict, and control behavior.
8 Psychology as a Science Psychology is a social science. (The social sciences include history, sociology, and political science.)Some areas of psychology include elements of the natural sciences. (The natural sciences include biology and chemistry.)
9 Psychology as a Science Psychologists, like scientists, conduct research.Psychologists conduct research by using surveys, case studies, observation methods, and experimentation.
10 Psychology as a Science Psychologists, like scientists, organize their ideas into theories.A theory is a statement that attempts to explain why things are the way they are and happen the way they do.Theories help psychologists predict behavior and mental processes.Theories may be revised or discarded.
11 1.2 What Psychologists DoPsychologists work in many different fields, but they all focus on studying and explaining behavior and mental processes.
12 Major Fields in Psychology Clinical PsychologyMake up the largest group of psychologistsTreat people with all types of psychology problemsWork in hospitals, prisons, colleges, and/or private practicePsychiatristsAre medical doctors and can prescribe medication
13 Major Fields in Psychology Counseling PsychologyTypically treat people with adjustment problemsOften work in businesses or higher education
14 Major Fields in Psychology School PsychologyIdentify and help students who have problems that interfere with learningUse interviews, tests, and observation to help studentsEducational PsychologyFocus on course planning & instructional methods for entire school systems rather then individualsOften work with testing
15 Major Fields in Psychology Developmental PsychologyStudy changes that occur during the life spanIncludes physical, emotional, cognitive, or social changes
16 Major Fields in Psychology Personality PsychologyIdentify and study human characteristics or traitsConcerned with issues such as anxiety, aggression, and gender rolesSocial PsychologyConcerned with people’s social behaviorFocus on external influences
17 Major Fields in Psychology Experimental PsychologyResearch basic processes such as functions of the nervous system, sensation and perception, learning, memory, thinking, and emotionsBasic research – has no immediate application and is done for its own sake
18 Other Specialists Industrial and Organizational Psychology Industrial – study of people and workOrganizational – study of how people behave in organizations such as businessUsually trained in both areasEmployed by business to improve working conditions and worker output
19 Other SpecialistsEnvironmental Psychology - Study how people influence and are influenced by their environmentConsumer Psychology – Study behavior of shoppersHealth PsychologyStudy how behavior and mental processes relate to physical healthStudy how stress affects healthFocus on disease prevention
20 Other Specialists Forensic Psychology Work in the criminal justice systemDetermine the psychological competence of defendantsExplain how psychological problems lead to criminal behaviorWork with police departments to select police officers, help officers cope with job stress, and train officers in the handling of dangerous situations
21 1.3 A History of Psychology Interest in psychology goes back to ancient GreeceScientific approach, which began in the 1500s, led to birth of modern psychology in the late 1800sHippocrates
22 1.3 A History of Psychology Wilhelm Wundt and StructuralismEstablished laboratory in 1879 in Leipzig, GermanyStructuralism focused on the basic elements of consciousnessBroke down consciousness into objective sensations and subjective feelingsBelieved human mind functions by combining objective sensations and subjective feelings
23 1.3 A History of Psychology William James and FunctionalismExperience is a continuous “stream of consciousness”Study how mental processes help organisms adapt to their environmentWilliam James
24 1.3 A History of Psychology John B. Watson and BehaviorismDefined psychology as the scientific study of observable behaviorBelieved people can be conditioned by external events and free choice is an illusionB.F. SkinnerContributed idea of reinforcementBehaviors reinforced will be repeatedWatsonSkinner
25 1.3 A History of Psychology The Gestalt SchoolDeveloped by German psychologists Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka, and Wolfgang KohlerPerceptions of objects are more then the sum of their parts - the wholes give meaning to the parts
26 1.3 A History of Psychology Sigmund Freud and PsychoanalysisEmphasizes unconscious motives and internal conflicts and importance of childhood experiencesVery influential and very controversialSigmund Freud