3 PBS – Respect & Responsibility OthersUse cells & breaksWork as team collaborativelySelfHydrate & stretchSelf-assessMaximize activity & work timeEnvironmentPre-cycle & recycleMaintain neat working area
5 Evidence Based Practices Classroom SettingEvidence Based PracticesClassroom-wide positive expectations taught & encouragedTeaching classroom routines & cues taught & encouragedRatio of 5 positive to 1 negative adult-student interactionActive supervisionRedirections for minor, infrequent behavior errorsFrequent precorrections for chronic errorsEffective academic instruction & curriculumSAY: Effective classroom environment is important because well-organized and managed classrooms provide opportunities for teachers to teach and students to learn both academic and social skills.If you were to visit these classrooms, you would see these practices on a daily basis.The “Classroom Practices Self-Assessment” in Appendix 5 can be used by educational leaders, teams, or facilitators to assist staff in reflecting on their own teaching practices and to develop individual or group action plans for professional development.How can we implement systems that support staff to implement these practices consistently?
10 Focus on the ClassroomTeachers often fail to integrate SW-PBS practices sufficiently in to the classroomPotential reasons:Need for direct training to generalization or adapt school-wide practices to classroom settings ORThat school-wide intervention does not specifically address the broader array of practices required in the classroom
11 Behavioral Expectations Extending PBIS into the Classroom
12 Defining Behavioral Expectations & Classroom Routines Link classroom to school-wide expectationsWhat are Classroom Routines?How to:Enter the classroomSharpen pencilTurn in homeworkGet a passAsk for helpParticipating in Class - Raise hand & wait to be called onCompleting a Classroom Matrix w/ RoutinesSee pp. 2-3 in packet
15 Teaching Behavioral Expectations & Routines Extending SW-PBS logic into the classroom when Explicitly teaching expected behavior in setting w/ student practiceSee Sample Lesson Plan (pp. 4-5 in packet)Link classroom to school-wide Schedule for Teaching of Expectations & Routines
16 Teaching Behaviors & Routines Tell/model/explainGuide practiceMonitor & assessGive positive feedbackGive corrective feedback – initial focus on prompting expected behaviorPrompt/Precorrect for Expected BehaviorFrequent Teaching & Review until class is fluent
17 Video Demonstration of Teaching Routines & Expectations Watch videoIdentify:Behavioral Expectations Defined & TaughtClassroom Routines Defined and TaughtIdentify strategies use to instruction expectations & routines
18 Scheduling LessonsSimilar to scheduling times to conduct SW PBS LessonsCan schedule times to conduct Classroom lessons & routinesIn beginning of the yearBooster sessions throughout the yearReteaching areas of concernMaybe arriving to class, raising hand & waiting to be called on, etc.
19 Time for Teachers to Complete IDEALLY…Identify and set aside times for teachers to work on this taskTeachers may want to work on this in grade level teams to share ideasHave teachers turn in completed Classroom planning worksheets to PBS team to share with other teachers
20 Team Work TimeHow will you extend the link between SW Rules & defining behavioral expectations into the classroom?How will you actively and explicitly set up teachers to make this link in their classrooms?
21 Catch ‘em Being Good 5:1 Ratio More information to come with“Building Habits”
22 Extending the Acknowledgment System in to the Classroom Extending the SW Acknowledgment System into the classroomCreating an Additional Classroom Acknowledgment systemUse systems to acknowledge individual students & groupHave teachers with model acknowledgment systems in the school share how they implement their classroom acknowledgment systemsDuring instruction is when we have the most on our mind – an acknowledgment system can be prompt needed to develop those habits of catching kids doing well
24 Misbehavior Happens: Train staff with strategies for responding Options for responding to misbehavior in the classroom“Defusing Anger & Aggression” or “Managin NonCompliance” video by Geoff ColvinTargets Secondary classrooms but useful for ElementaryPurchase at through Iris MediaShow isolated vignettesIdentify specific strategies used in videoIdentify how & when to use strategy in your classroomBe SPECIFIC -- what to say/ what to doPhysically rehearse doing it your way several timesDevelop prompts to encourage use in classroom
25 Guidelines for Responding to Misbehavior Respond Consistently, Calmly, Briefly & Return to InstructionGoal: pay more time & attention to positive behaviorReduce Student EscalationReduce amount of missed instructional timeSee packet – 9 Variables Affecting Compliance
26 3 cheap, easy & powerful Behavior Management Tools ProximityMoving & scanning frequentlySlowly moving toward a student & using proximity, instead of verbally addressingReinforcementAcknowledging other students who are on taskPrecorrectionFrequent pre-teaching & reminders of expectations, before students have chance to engage in problem behavior
27 Use Alpha Commands when responding to problem behavior Minimal # of wordsClear, concrete & specificGive a reasonable amount of time for behavior to occurBeta CommandsWordyVagueOften convey feelings of frustration or angerMay contain many sets of directions
28 Alpha Commands Alpha Commands are Clear & Positive “Pick up your chair, sit down, and draw a picture of your favorite animal”instead of“How many times have I told you not to get up out of your seat. Don’t you know how to act in this class? I’m getting tired of telling you what to do a hundred times. Now, get to work.”
29 Preplanned Consequence Have a Routine for Responding to Minor Problem Behavior (p. 8 of packet)Specific RequestIf, ComplianceWalk Away & wait5-10 secondsIf, Non-ComplianceReinforce!“Please _________”Request in a calm voiceIf, NoncompliancePreplanned ConsequenceWalk away & Wait 5-10 sec.
30 Classroom Systems Team Implementation & Support
40 Classroom Systems School-wide PBIS Increasing Specific Praise (5 to 1 Ratio) Chris Borgmeier, PhDPortland State University
41 #2 on NY Times Bestseller List on March 18th 2012 The Power of Habit: Why we do what we do in life and business Charles Duhigg Video Intro#2 on NY Times Bestseller List on March 18th 2012
42 PBIS Classroom System: Next Steps Brief presentation of practiceTime to individualize practice to fit your classroom, context & needsBrief presentation of Self-Monitoring use of your targeted practiceTime to develop an individualized Self-Monitoring Plan
44 Praise & the 5:1 Ratio Pay attention to What you Want to See Acknowledge positive behavior 5 times more often that you respond to negative behaviorKeep it genuine; not the same for all kidsNegative interactions are not wrong and are sometimes necessary; the keys are:How the negative interactions are provided (gentle, respectful corrections) &the ratioThere is a ceiling effect at 13 to 1 – but we are at very little risk of achieving this in schools; more often we are at 1:1 or even more negatives than positives
45 Why Praise & Acknowledge Desired Behavior? Reinforce teaching of new behaviorsBehavior is likely to become a habit and recur in the future only if demonstrating it has been beneficialHarness the influence of kids who are showing expected behaviors to encourage the kids who are notStrengthen positive behaviors that can compete with problem behaviorImprove school climateCreate positive interactions and rapport with students“Adult attention, even if it is negative, is a powerful reinforcer--especially for students with the most challenging behaviors who typically receive very little positive attention.” (Maag, 2001)What Great Teachers do to create environments where students:1. Know what is expected. With acknowledgement come an expectation of accountability2. Receive recognition each week for good behavior.3. Have a teacher who cares, and pays attention.4. Receive encouragement to contribute and improve.5. Have the opportunity to do the right thing.
46 5:1 Positive to Negative Ratio The field at large recommends somewhere between 3 and 6 positive to every 1 negativeGable, Hester, Rock & Hughes, 2009; Kerr & Nelson, 2006; Nafpaktitis, Mayer & Butterworth, 1995; Stichter et al., 2009; Walker, Ramsey & Gresham, 2004)Mental Health (Frederickson & Losada, 2005)2.5 to 1 = normal functioning4.3 to 1 = optimal functioningTipping point seems to be 2.9 to 15ish to 1
47 5:1 ratio, it’s not just for kids Married couples that last (Gottman, 1994)Flourishing marriages: 5.1 to 1 speech acts & 4.7 to 1 for observed emotionsPoor marriages: 0.9 to 1 speech & 0.7 to 1 actionsBusiness teamsHigh Performance teams = 5.6 to 1Medium Performance teams = 1.9:1Low Performance teams = 1 to 2.7Losada, 1999; Losada & Heaphy 2004
51 Research on Praise & Acknowledging Positive Behavior Research has demonstrated that increased Praise can lead to increases in the following:Students’ correct responsesWork productivity and accuracyAcademic performanceOn-task behavior and attentionCompliance, positive comments about selfCooperative playSimonsen, Fairbanks, Briesch, Myers, & Sugai, 2008
52 Critical Features of Acknowledgement Acknowledgment of Positive Behavior (praise) is most effective if it is immediate, specific, sincere, varied, student referencedImmediateSpecific: explicitly describes the desired behavior performedSincere: credible and authenticVaried: varied word choice, varied academic and behavior praise, whole group, small group and individualStudent referenced: compares student performance to previous performance and does not compare students to others; acknowledge effort
53 Positive Acknowledgement/ Praise examples “Excellent job listening and following directions the first time.”“Your eyes are on me and your mouth is quiet. Thank you for being ready to learn.”“Wow, you completed your math work correctly before the end of class.”
54 When Acknowledging Positive Behavior Identify the specific behavior being acknowledgedLink the behavior to one of the SW-RulesGOOD EXAMPLE“Wow, thank you for helping to clean up the spill, that was very Responsible of you”NOT AS GOOD“Thank you, good job!”
55 Increase Positive Feedback & Decreasing Negative ID a specific problem behavior you would like to see less of and define the opposite of this behaviorTeach & re-teach the expected/desired behaviorProvide “precorrections” in advance to set up positive behaviorIgnore the problem behavior and “catch” the students meeting expectations w/ specific positive feedbackCoaching Classroom Management, 2006
56 Procedural Steps for increasing Positive Acknowledgement Ratio Identify challenging times, routines and behaviors that occur throughout the dayIdentify desired behaviors to focus on praising, particularly during challenging timesExplicitly teach students to engage in desired behaviors
57 Procedural Steps for increasing Positive Acknowledgement Ratio Identify a range of phrases, gestures, methods for acknowledging targeted desired behaviors, particularly identify ways to replace corrections with acknowledgement of proximal peers for desired behaviorMonitor for desired behaviors & acknowledge individuals or group of students immediately following desired behaviorImplement personal prompts and monitoring to encourage replacement of corrections with acknowledgments
58 The Habit Loop from “The Power of Habit” A habit is a formula our brain automatically follows:When I see CUE, I will do ROUTINE in order to get a REWARD.
60 Your Turn Take a few minutes to Complete Step 1 of the Worksheet Remember, we’d like to collect a copy of your worksheet at the end of the training today to plan for support
61 FLIP THE RATIO Trading Negative Acknowledgements for Positive
62 Your Turn Take a few minutes to Complete Step 2 of the Worksheet Share your strategies with a partner
63 Set up Systems to Increase Positive Acknowledgement Students TeacherGood Behavior GameT-chartTeach behavioral expectationsStudents earn points for positive behaviorTeacher gets points for negative behaviorTotal points at end to determine if “reward” is earnedHand out Acknowledgement Tokens or Tallies for positive behaviorIndividuals or Pre-arranged Groups in the classroom
64 Ways to Encourage & Monitor your Ratio Post a visual reminder to praise students in area viewed frequentlyPraise in Pairs: After praising one student, find another student exhibiting similar behavior to praiseAcknowledge creatively – use gestures (thumbs up, OK sign, clapping, nod, high five) tangibles (stickers, stars), points toward whole class or individual reward, calling parent to report student success
65 Self MonitoringTraining on classroom management practices alone does not result in changes or improved practiceSelf-monitoring offers an effective, efficient strategy for improving implementation of classroom practices(Simonsen, MacSuga, Fallon & Sugai, 2013)
66 Self Monitoring Strategies for Self-Monitoring Index Card Tearing (long side for positive, short side for negative)Hash marks on tape on your arm or pant legGolf CounterMove Pennies or paperclips from one pocket to other based positive & negative acknowledgements
68 Your Turn Take a few minutes to Complete Step 3 of the Worksheet Make sure to Identify meaningful& feasible supportsIdentify your strategy for Self-MonitoringDevelop Peer Strategies for support – you can discuss with a peerPlease turn in a copy of your implementation plan with your name on it before you leaveWe will copy and get it back to you
69 Daily email prompt to enter self-monitoring data
70 Ongoing Implementation Supports Graphic summary of Self-monitoring data will be providedReview in PLC teamsSet goalsProblem SolveEncourage, Support & Celebrate
71 Team & School-wide Supports Team Supports (e.g. Dept., Grade Level, PLC)Make Classroom improvement a regular part of meetings and activitiesBegin meeting w/ 2 minute check:Check-In & Celebrate successesEncourage implementationProblem solve & enhance implementationSupport Habit Development!School-wide SupportsReminder on Morning announcementsRegular review/check-in at staff meetingRewards for implementers & exemplarsRecognize your BuddyRecognize someone you observed engage in the practiceDaily or weekly implementation updates & recognition
72 References Descriptive Readings Brophy, J. (1981). Teacher Praise: A Functional Analysis. Review of Educational Research, 51(1), 5-32.Conroy, M. A., Sutherland, K. S., Snyder, A., Al-Hendawi, M. & Vo, A. (2009). Creating a positive classroom atmosphere: Teachers’ use of effective praise and feedback. Beyond Behavior, 18(2), ppGable, R. A., Hester, P. H., Rock, M. L., & Hughes, K. G. (2009). Back to Basics Rules, Praise, Ignoring, and Reprimands Revisited. [Article]. Intervention in School and Clinic, 44(4),Simonsen, B., Fairbanks, S., Briesch, A., Myers, D. & Sugai, G. (2008). Evidence-based practices in classroom management: Considerations for Research to practice. Education and Treatment of Children, 31(3), ppSprick, R., Knight, J., Reinke, W., Skyles, T., & Barnes, L. (2009). Coaching Classroom Management: Strategies and tools for administrators and coaches (2nd ed). Pacific NorthWest Publishing, Eugene, OR.Research Studies demonstrating outcomes associated with the use of praise to reprimandBecker, W.C., Engelmann, S., & Thomas, D.R. (1975). Teaching 2: Cognitive Learning and Instruction. Chicago: Science Research Associates.Pfiffner, L. J., Rosen, L. A., & O'Leary, S. G. (1985). The efficacy of an all-positive approach to classroom management. [Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 18(3),Sutherland, K. S., Wehby, J. H., & Copeland, S. R. (2000). Effect of varying rates of behavior-specific praise on the on-task behavior of students with EBD. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 8(1), 2-+.Relationship between praise, rewards, and intrinsic motivationAkin-Little, K. A., Eckert, T. L., Lovett, B. J., & Little, S. G. (2004). Extrinsic reinforcement in the classroom: Bribery or best practice. [Article]. School Psychology Review, 33(3),Cameron, J., & Pierce, W. D. (1994). Reinforcement, Reward, and Intrinsic Motivation: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 64(3),Deci, E. L., Koestner, R., & Ryan, R. M. (1999). A meta-analytic review of experiments examining the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 125(6),