Goal for Today To introduce you to key principles and basic concepts for a continuum of support for students known as Positive Behavior Supports (PBS)
Did you know? “ We live in an era when research tells us that the teacher is probably the single most important factor affecting student achievement- at least the single most important factor that we can do much about. (Marzano, 2003)
Challenges Poor attendance Academically deficient Disruptions by students in classrooms Discipline
Competing priorities… Improve literacy, math, social studies, science, etc. Make schools safe and tobacco, alcohol, and drug free Improve student character and prevent bullying Provide a free & appropriate education for all Meet AYP and APR standards All students reading on level by grade 3 Leave No Child Behind Etc….
Public school teachers must deal with all of America’s children. (Marzano, 2003) These students enter the classroom with a staggering array of serious issues in their lives.
What Do Schools Exclusion and punishment are the most common responses to conduct disorders in schools. Lane & Murakami, (1987); Rose, (1988); Nieto, (1999); Sprick, Borgmeier, & Nolet, (2002) Exclusion and punishment are ineffective at producing long-term reduction in problem behavior. Costenbader & Markson (1998)
Positive Behavior Support (PBS) is a general term that refers to the application of an applied science that uses proactive and effective educational methods, behavioral interventions, environmental redesign and systems change methods to support individuals who exhibit disruptive and/or dangerous behaviors in school, work, social, community and family settings (Carr et al., 2002; Horner et al., 1990).
Based in Behavioral Science Behavior is learned Behavior is related to the immediate and social environmental factors Systemic manipulation of the environmental factors influences behavior Behavior can change Appropriate and effective feedback leads to changes in behavior
The Foundation “ Students learn appropriate behavior in the same way they learn to read – through instruction, practice, feedback, and encouragement.”
A Research Based Foundation Research indicates that one way to effectively support children with problem behavior is to build skills through effective teaching. (Carr et al., 2002; Horner, Albin, Sprague & Todd, 2000)
Academic SystemsBehavioral Systems 1-5% 5-15% 80-90% Intensive, Individual Interventions Individual Students Assessment-based High Intensity Intensive, Individual Interventions Individual Students Assessment-based Intense, durable procedures Targeted Group Interventions Some students (at-risk) High efficiency Rapid response Targeted Group Interventions Some students (at-risk) High efficiency Rapid response Universal Interventions All students Preventive, proactive Universal Interventions All settings, all students Preventive, proactive The Triangle
PBS Features Science of Human Behavior Local Context & Culture Prevention Logic Natural Implementers Evidence- Based Practices Systems Change & Durability Continuum of Behavior Support
Systems of Support Nonclassroom Setting Systems Classroom Setting Systems Individual Student Systems School-wide Systems
Outcomes – the academic and behavior targets that are endorsed and emphasized by students, families and educators Practices – the interventions and strategies that are evidence base and structure the way staff interact with students Systems – the supports that are needed to enable accurate and durable implementation of the practices of PBS Data – the information that is used to identify the current status, the need for change, and the effects of interventions.
Guiding Principles Requires long-term commitment to systems change of effective practices Implemented consistently by staff and administration Positive behaviors are publicly acknowledged Problem behaviors have clear consequences Student behavior is monitored and staff receive regular feedback Strategies are implemented at the school-wide, specific setting, classroom, and individual student levels Strategies are designed to meet the needs of all students
Key Features 1)Administrative leadership and participation 2)Team-based implementation 3)Define a clear set of positive expectations and behaviors 4)Teaching expected behavior 5)Acknowledge/reward/encouraging expected behaviors 6)Monitor and correct behavior (learning) errors 7)Use information for decision-making, monitoring, and evaluation
Implementation Readiness Commitment and Buy-in Administrator support and participation District and School-wide Readiness Checklists – minimum requirements
Establish a school-wide leadership or behavior support team to guide and direct the process. This team should be made up of an administrator, grade level representatives, support staff, and parents. Secure administrator agreement of active support and participation. Secure a commitment and agreement from at least 80% of the staff for active support and participation. Conduct a self assessment of the current school- wide discipline system. Create an implementation action plan that is based data based decision making. Establish a way to collect office referral and other data on a regular basis to evaluate the effectiveness of school-wide PBS efforts.
Leadership Team Represents a range of stakeholders Administrator(s) active participant(s) Identified team leader and internal coach(es) May be part of another committee or team already in place Participates in training
Functions of Team Coordination of implementation Establish regular meeting schedule Establish a standard system for communicating Conduct assessments Analyze needs and develop action plans Develop regular opportunities for training
Expectations Provide a clear understanding of expected student behavior Few in number (3-5) Positively stated and structured Use familiar language Example behaviors defined for purposes of instruction Matrix and lesson plans designed
Data Based Action Planning What are the questions? Which data is available to answer the questions? What other data is needed to answer the questions? How will data be collected, turned into information, and disseminated? What is the data telling you? Make plans based on analysis.
Action Planning Think, plan, and form ideas as a team. It is individualized for each building. Identify strengths and needs Chose a priority for development Identify activities Specify who, what, and when