Presentation on theme: "U.S. IMPERIALISM Unit VC AP United States History."— Presentation transcript:
U.S. IMPERIALISM Unit VC AP United States History
Fundamental Question To what extent was the American public supportive of increased foreign involvement?
Historical U.S. Foreign Policy Washington’s Farewell Address Avoid permanent alliances Jefferson’s Empire of Liberty Model of republicanism and democracy Monroe Doctrine Prevention of European intervention in Western Hemisphere Manifest Destiny Louisiana Purchase Oregon Territory Mexican-American War Limited Involvement Domestic economic expansion Economic dependency on European powers Civil War Protective tariffs Immigration
U.S. Foreign Events Before 1880 Monroe Doctrine Japan Commodore Perry Convention of Kanagawa (1854) William H. Seward Mexico (1866) Midway Island (1867) Alaska Purchase - “Seward’s Folly” (1867)
Hawaii Hawaii was an independent kingdom Christian missionaries and sugar plantation farmers settle since 1820s Rise of Sugar Oligarchy and Fall of Kingdom Duty-free sugar led to sugar plantation owners become prosperous and powerful Queen Liliuokalani resented American encroachment Sugar owners back by marines overthrew the Queen and established Republic of Hawaii Annexation Grover Cleveland refused William McKinley argued manifest destiny Annexed in 1898 and territory by 1900
Enforcing the Monroe Doctrine Pan-American Conference (1889) Permanent organization between U.S. and Latin American nations for mutual political and economical prosperity Venezuela and Great Britain U.S. threatened force against Britain Deal made favoring U.S. and G.B.
Spanish-American War Cuba Cuban revolt and Spanish retribution threatened American investments Yellow journalism Sensational stories whipped up anti-Spanish sentiment DeLome Letter (Feb. 9, 1898) Spanish minister criticized McKinley “Remember the Maine!” (Feb. 15, 1898) 250 Americans lost in explosion in Havana Harbor War declaration and Teller Amendment Spain’s refusal of American demands led to war Teller Amendment promised Cuban independence once peace restored Cuban Theater Inexperienced soldiers died from disease than Spanish Rough Riders and San Juan Hill Santiago Bay Philippines Theater Destruction of Spanish fleet in Manila Bay (May 1, 1898) Americans capture Manila (August 13, 1898) Treaty of Paris Cuban independence Annexation of Puerto Rico, Guam; Philippines for $20 million
Imperialists and Anti-Imperialists Mostly from Republican Party Theodore Roosevelt, John Hay, James G. Blaine Economic expansion, political security, international prestige, humanitarian efforts Insular Cases (1901-1903) Constitutional provisions and guarantees granted only by Congress to territories Anti-Imperialist League William Jennings Bryan, Samuel Gompers, Mark Twain, Ben Tillman, Andrew Carnegie Mostly from Democratic Party Undemocratic, violated republicanism
Policies of Diplomacy Big Stick Policy (Roosevelt 1901-1908) Aggressive and interventionist policies Roosevelt Corollary Right for American intervention if a nation proved incapable to protect American investments and hemisphere stability Dollar Diplomacy (Taft 1909-1912) Endorse American expansion through overseas investment and infrastructure Lodge Corollary extended Monroe Doctrine to non-European nations Moral Diplomacy (Wilson 1912-1921) Opposition to aggressive expansion Promote democratic and republican ideals especially in affected nations/territories
Intervention in Latin America Cuba Platt Amendment Removal of U.S. troops on acceptance Became a U.S. protectorate Haiti (BSP) Santo Domingo (BSP) Panama (BSP) Revolution and Hay-Pauncefote Treaty After U.S.-supported rebellion, U.S. awarded rights to canal zone connecting Atlantic and Pacific interests Panama Canal 1904-1914 Eliminated American exemption in 1914 (MD) Nicaragua (1911) (DD) Marines sent to protect investments Puerto Rico Limited sovereignty and citizenship in 1917 (MD) Mexico Tampico and Pancho Villa (1913-1917)
Intervention in Asia Philippines Annexed by Treaty of Paris (1899) Guerilla warfare led by Emilio Aguinaldo Jones Act of 1916 (MD) Guaranteed rights and independence given stability China Open Door Policy Equal trading among nations with spheres of influence in order to protect American investments in China Preserve Chinese independence for mutual benefit Boxer Rebellion International force suppressed anti-foreigner rebels Europeans further strangled Qing Dynasty Railroad investment in China (DD) Japan Treaty of Portsmouth Ended Russo-Japanese War “gentleman’s agreement” Japanese restrict emigration and U.S. repeal discrimination laws Great White Fleet (1907-1909) (BSP) Root-Takahira Agreement (1908) Japan supported Open Door Policy in China Acknowledged each nation’s territories in Pacific