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U.S. IMPERIALISM Unit VC AP United States History.

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Presentation on theme: "U.S. IMPERIALISM Unit VC AP United States History."— Presentation transcript:

1 U.S. IMPERIALISM Unit VC AP United States History

2 Fundamental Question  To what extent was the American public supportive of increased foreign involvement?

3 Historical U.S. Foreign Policy  Washington’s Farewell Address  Avoid permanent alliances  Jefferson’s Empire of Liberty  Model of republicanism and democracy  Monroe Doctrine  Prevention of European intervention in Western Hemisphere  Manifest Destiny  Louisiana Purchase  Oregon Territory  Mexican-American War  Limited Involvement  Domestic economic expansion  Economic dependency on European powers  Civil War  Protective tariffs  Immigration

4 U.S. Foreign Events Before 1880  Monroe Doctrine  Japan  Commodore Perry  Convention of Kanagawa (1854)  William H. Seward  Mexico (1866)  Midway Island (1867)  Alaska Purchase - “Seward’s Folly” (1867)

5 Hawaii  Hawaii was an independent kingdom  Christian missionaries and sugar plantation farmers settle since 1820s  Rise of Sugar Oligarchy and Fall of Kingdom  Duty-free sugar led to sugar plantation owners become prosperous and powerful  Queen Liliuokalani resented American encroachment  Sugar owners back by marines overthrew the Queen and established Republic of Hawaii  Annexation  Grover Cleveland refused  William McKinley argued manifest destiny  Annexed in 1898 and territory by 1900

6 Why Hawaii?

7 Enforcing the Monroe Doctrine  Pan-American Conference (1889)  Permanent organization between U.S. and Latin American nations for mutual political and economical prosperity  Venezuela and Great Britain  U.S. threatened force against Britain  Deal made favoring U.S. and G.B.

8 Spanish-American War  Cuba  Cuban revolt and Spanish retribution threatened American investments  Yellow journalism  Sensational stories whipped up anti-Spanish sentiment  DeLome Letter (Feb. 9, 1898)  Spanish minister criticized McKinley  “Remember the Maine!” (Feb. 15, 1898)  250 Americans lost in explosion in Havana Harbor  War declaration and Teller Amendment  Spain’s refusal of American demands led to war  Teller Amendment promised Cuban independence once peace restored  Cuban Theater  Inexperienced soldiers died from disease than Spanish  Rough Riders and San Juan Hill  Santiago Bay  Philippines Theater  Destruction of Spanish fleet in Manila Bay (May 1, 1898)  Americans capture Manila (August 13, 1898)  Treaty of Paris  Cuban independence  Annexation of Puerto Rico, Guam; Philippines for $20 million

9 A Cry for War

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11 Imperialists and Anti-Imperialists  Mostly from Republican Party  Theodore Roosevelt, John Hay, James G. Blaine  Economic expansion, political security, international prestige, humanitarian efforts  Insular Cases ( )  Constitutional provisions and guarantees granted only by Congress to territories  Anti-Imperialist League  William Jennings Bryan, Samuel Gompers, Mark Twain, Ben Tillman, Andrew Carnegie  Mostly from Democratic Party  Undemocratic, violated republicanism

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15 Big Stick by Teddy

16 Policies of Diplomacy  Big Stick Policy (Roosevelt )  Aggressive and interventionist policies  Roosevelt Corollary  Right for American intervention if a nation proved incapable to protect American investments and hemisphere stability  Dollar Diplomacy (Taft )  Endorse American expansion through overseas investment and infrastructure  Lodge Corollary extended Monroe Doctrine to non-European nations  Moral Diplomacy (Wilson )  Opposition to aggressive expansion  Promote democratic and republican ideals especially in affected nations/territories

17 Intervention in Latin America  Cuba  Platt Amendment  Removal of U.S. troops on acceptance  Became a U.S. protectorate  Haiti (BSP)  Santo Domingo (BSP)  Panama (BSP)  Revolution and Hay-Pauncefote Treaty  After U.S.-supported rebellion, U.S. awarded rights to canal zone connecting Atlantic and Pacific interests  Panama Canal   Eliminated American exemption in 1914 (MD)  Nicaragua (1911) (DD)  Marines sent to protect investments  Puerto Rico  Limited sovereignty and citizenship in 1917 (MD)  Mexico  Tampico and Pancho Villa ( )

18 Panama Canal Zone

19 Caribbean Involvement

20 Intervention in Asia  Philippines  Annexed by Treaty of Paris (1899)  Guerilla warfare led by Emilio Aguinaldo  Jones Act of 1916 (MD)  Guaranteed rights and independence given stability  China  Open Door Policy  Equal trading among nations with spheres of influence in order to protect American investments in China  Preserve Chinese independence for mutual benefit  Boxer Rebellion  International force suppressed anti-foreigner rebels  Europeans further strangled Qing Dynasty  Railroad investment in China (DD)  Japan  Treaty of Portsmouth  Ended Russo-Japanese War  “gentleman’s agreement”  Japanese restrict emigration and U.S. repeal discrimination laws  Great White Fleet ( ) (BSP)  Root-Takahira Agreement (1908)  Japan supported Open Door Policy in China  Acknowledged each nation’s territories in Pacific


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