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All My Own Work: Module 2 Acknowledging Sources Source:

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1 All My Own Work: Module 2 Acknowledging Sources Source:

2 What is meant by 'acknowledging sources'? Acknowledging sources means providing written recognition of any ideas that are used or adapted for students' work. You need to provide the name of the original author and details of where you found the information. You may need to acknowledge sources within the body of a work. You should acknowledge sources at the end of your work. 'Referencing', 'citing' and 'attribution' are terms often used to refer to the acknowledgement of sources. Source:

3 The following types of source materials should be acknowledged: advertisements other students' work others' ideas blogs encyclopedia articles personal interviews CDROMs and DVDs letters pictures magazines maps TV programs pamphlets journals newspapers movies artworks teachers lecturers books websites s discussion groups music Source:

4 The following types of sources do not need to be acknowledged: your own experiences your own experimental results common knowledge. Common knowledge includes: facts that are commonly known (eg there are twelve months in a year) facts that are so well known that they are easily available in a number of different kinds of sources (eg World War II began in 1939) commonsense observations (eg interest rates going up will affect mortgage payments). Source:

5 Why should sources be acknowledged ? You should acknowledge materials you use in the creation of a piece of work to clearly identify information and ideas gained from an 'outside' source. You should acknowledge sources to: demonstrate you academic integrity support your argument by showing the sources of the information from which you have formed your own ideas make it easy for readers to find the sources you have used, to check the information you have used and to use the sources for further information fulfil your moral and legal obligations to recognise and acknowledge the author(s) of the original ideas avoid plagiarism so that you are not falsely claiming someone else's work or ideas as your own. Note: Most HSC courses have research assignments as assessment tasks that require you to find and use a range of resources and to acknowledge where you found information you used to complete each task. For further information regarding specific HSC course requirements go to: Learning to acknowledge sources appropriately will be very helpful to you if you continue on to university, TAFE or other tertiary studies. Warning Students who do not acknowledge the sources they have used, properly or at all, may be guilty of plagiarism. This is a very serious issue and may affect a student's marks and eligibility for the HSC. Source:

6 Moral Rights The moral rights of an author, artist or creator entitle them: to be named as the author to be protected against false attribution to have their work treated with respect and not be misrepresented. Source:

7 Moral rights: apply to the creators of copyright works are separate from the entitlement of a copyright owner to payment generally last for 70 years after the author's death. To observe the moral rights of an author you should: attribute any quote, paraphrase, summary or copy of someone else's work or idea ensure that works are not falsely attributed to an author reference appropriately. Source:

8 When and how should sources be acknowledged within the body of a work? When you quote, paraphrase, summarise or copy information from the sources you are using to research your work, you must always acknowledge the source. There are two places where you need to acknowledge the source: in the text, and at the end of the text. The place where you use the information in the text of your work should be shown with an 'in-text citation'. At the end of your work, you should provide a reference list of all the works that you have 'cited' in your work. Your teachers will expect you to use an in-text citation and provide a full reference list of the sources used whenever you: quote - ie use someone else's words copy - eg a table, map, image paraphrase - ie put someone else's ideas into your own words summarise - ie create your own short account of someone else's information or ideas Source:

9 How? You must acknowledge the original author and where you found the material within the resource. This can be done using an in-text citation, a footnote or an endnote. As there are a variety of referencing styles, you should follow your teachers' advice on which to use. How should direct quotes be referenced using in-text citation? Short quotations If you quote an author directly and the quotation is a short quotation (as a guide, less than three or four lines), you should place the quotation in quotation marks and identify the source. Long quotations If you quote an author directly and the quotation is a long quotation (as a guide, more than three or four lines), you should set the quotation off from your text by indenting and identify the source. In the Harvard (or author-date) system, the source can be identified by providing the author's or organisation's name, the year of publication and the page number in brackets. For example, 'The stable world of the nineteenth century was coming down in chaos: security was gone.' (Bean, 1983, p.22) Source:

10 In-text citation When you are using another person's idea but not quoting directly, you must acknowledge the source. In the Harvard system, the source can be identified by placing the author's or authority's name and the year of publication in brackets before or after referring to it. Source:

11 Footnotes and endnotes Footnotes and endnotes are also ways of acknowledging the sources of any material quoted, summarised or paraphrased on any page of a submitted work. Footnotes and endnotes are intended to refer readers to exact pages of the works listed in the reference list. Source:

12 How should any material quoted, summarised or paraphrased be referenced using footnotes or endnotes? Insert a number (either in brackets or slightly above the line) in your text at the end of the sentence or immediately following a direct quotation or idea that is being used from a source. For footnotes, the information about the source of each numbered reference is given at the bottom of each page of your text. With endnotes this information is given in a list at the end of your work. Source:

13 How should sources be referenced at the end of a work? A reference list includes all the sources of information that have been cited in a piece of work. The reference list is located at the end of the piece of work and is usually listed in alphabetical order of the authors of the different sources used. Each in-text citation must have a corresponding entry in the reference list which is submitted with the assignment. A bibliography includes all the sources used in the preparation of a piece of work - not just those that have been cited in the text of the work and included in a reference list. The bibliography is located at the end of the piece of work and is usually listed in alphabetical order of the authors of the different sources used. Different resources, print and electronic, have different characteristics related to their type, format and the content they contain. Each type of resource is cited and referenced in a slightly different way. As you have already learnt, there is no universal referencing style and you should ask your teachers which style you should follow. The four most common referencing styles are: – Harvard (author-date) – American Psychological Association (APA) – Modern Language Association (MLA) – Oxford (documentary-note or footnote referencing). Source:

14 What strategies can students use in preparation for the acknowledgment of sources in their work? organise notes and record details of where information was actually found record details of the resource being used on the pages of your notes, printouts or photocopies of information learn about correct citation and referencing methods before you begin your research access the information required for referencing different types of resources (e.g. books, newspaper articles, films, websites) ask teachers for guidelines about the style, format and amount of detail required to acknowledge the resources used in an assignment set up a chart to keep track of the basic bibliographic information (i.e. author, title, date, pages used, publisher, etc) of any resource you use know the difference between a quotation, summary and paraphrase (see Module three)Module three Source:


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