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Frequently Asked Questions 3 Steps in Referencing In-Text References: rules and examples End-Text References: rules and examples 3 Class Exercises 3 Written Exercises Introduction to the online guide on APA Referencing © Central Institute of Technology 2014
What is Referencing? Referencing is a method of acknowledging sources of information that you have used in your written work. The APA (American Psychological Association) 6 th edition is the method now used at Central Institute of Technology. © Central Institute of Technology 2014
Why do you reference? To show where you got the information from. To demonstrate how much research you did. To allow the reader (your lecturer) to be able to find and check the information. Study, 2007 © Central Institute of Technology
When do you have to reference? If you: 1. quote (use someone else’s exact words) 2. paraphrase (convert someone else’s ideas into your own words) 3. summarise (use a brief account of someone else’s ideas) 4. copy (use statistics, figures, tables, images) Rottnest Island, 2008 © Central Institute of Technology 2014
When do you not need to give references? References are not required for items of general knowledge or common knowledge. Common knowledge includes facts that are well known within the community in which they are used. An example: Rottnest Island is home to the quokka which is an Australian native animal. Quokka, 2008 © Central Institute of Technology 2014
What if you don’t reference? Plagiarism is the term used when someone copies another person’s ideas or opinions as their own and doesn’t acknowledge the original source of the information. Plagiarism, whether deliberate or accidental, is a form of cheating and is not acceptable. Remember, if you plagiarise in your assignment you may fail © Central Institute of Technology 2014
Where can referencing information be found? Book On the title page for the title, author and publisher On the back of the title page for the place and year of publication Journal/Magazine On the cover On the second page Down the spine © Central Institute of Technology 2014
Step 1 When taking notes for an essay topic, write down all the relevant bibliographic details of your information source. For a book: author year of publication title edition place of publication publisher Note taking, 2007 © Central Institute of Technology 2014
Step 2 Insert a brief citation at the appropriate place within the text of your essay where this information is used. Example of an In-Text Reference: Freeman, 2010, p. 24 © Central Institute of Technology 2014
Step 3 At the end of your assignment add a Reference List containing your information sources with full citations. Example of an End-Text Reference: Freeman, M. (2010). Basic guide to event management. Oxford: Focal Press. © Central Institute of Technology 2014
General Rules for In-Text References Include: author’s surname year of publication (latest edition) page numbers (if appropriate) Page numbers are not necessary when you summarise or paraphrase another person’s ideas or opinions Example: …(Jones, 2010) OR Jones (2010)… Page numbers are only necessary when you use precise information or a quotation Example: …(Douglas, 2009, p. 22) OR Douglas (2009, p.22)… © Central Institute of Technology 2014
General Rules for End-Text References List references in alphabetical order by author/sponsor Where there is no author/sponsor, use the title Use italics or underlining to indicate titles Separate each element of the citation with a full stop Second and subsequent lines of a citation should be indented 5 spaces © Central Institute of Technology 2014
author’s surname and initials year of publication title of book (underline or use italics) edition (if not the first) place of publication publisher © Central Institute of Technology 2014
Title Page Back of Title Page
Conway, D. (2006). The event manager’s bible: How to plan and deliver an event (2 nd ed.). Oxford: How To Books. (Conway, 2006, p. 19) © Central Institute of Technology 2014
author’s surname and initials year of publication title of article name of journal/magazine (underline or use italics) volume number issue number or date page number(s) © Central Institute of Technology 2014
INSIDE ARTICLE The Events Industry in 2020 Story by Rob Frank Page 40
Frank. R. (2010). The events industry in Mice.net, April, 40. (Frank, 2010, p. 40) © Central Institute of Technology 2014
name of author or sponsor or organisation year of creation (or update year) title of web page (underline or use italics) Retrieved from name of URL (web address) © Central Institute of Technology 2014
© Copyright 2013 Tennis Australia
Tennis Australia. (2013). Tournaments. Retrieved from (Tennis Australia, 2013) © Central Institute of Technology 2014
Referencing an Image © Central Institute of Technology 2014 In-Text Rottnest Island, 2008 End-Text Rottnest Island [Image]. (2008). Retrieved from
Book Book © Central Institute of Technology 2014
Harris, M. (2012). Essential event planning kit. London: Collins Publishers. © Central Institute of Technology 2014
Journal/Magazine Article © Central Institute of Technology 2014
Adams, T. (2013). An event to remember, Micenet, July, © Central Institute of Technology 2014
Web Page Web Page name of author or sponsor or organisation year of creation (or update year) title of web page (underline or use italics) Retrieved from name of URL (web address) (NOW DO EXERCISE 3) (NOW DO EXERCISE 3) © Central Institute of Technology 2014
Tourism Australia. (2012). Plan your event. Retrieved from australia.com/plan-your-event.aspx © Central Institute of Technology 2014
If you require further assistance with referencing: Ask at the Library Service Desk Check out the online guide on APA Referencing at: © Central Institute of Technology 2014
Reference List for Images Note taking. (2007). ClipArt used with permission from Microsoft. Quokka [Image]. (2008). Retrieved from Rottnest Island [Image]. (2008). Retrieved from Study [Image]. (2007). ClipArt used with permission from Microsoft.
Referencing Information Sources: Using the APA Style [View presentation in Slide Show mode]
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